Full List: Loudspeaker & Monitor Specifications w/ Examples



Loudspeakers come in a wide variety of designs and are defined by a rather large amount of specifications. We can learn a lot about a speaker before ever plugging it in and/or connecting it to an amplifier by reading its specifications or data sheet.

What are loudspeaker specifications? Loudspeaker specifications, shown on spec/data sheets, are pieces of information that tell us the electrical, mechanical, acoustic and physical characteristics a speaker and how a speaker ought to perform.

Note that, depending on the loudspeaker, different specifications will apply and that no loudspeaker will have ratings for every specification mentioned in this post.

In this article, we’ll describe each of these specifications and what they mean to the overall functionality of the loudspeaker in question!


Loudspeaker Specifications

There is an abundance of loudspeaker specifications due to the abundance of speaker types and designs.

I will list out all the potential specifications you may find on a speaker’s data sheet and describe each of them on a surface level. I will also add real-world examples of speakers that have the specifications mentioned.

Links to more in-depth discussions on critical specifications will be added.

In order to provide real-world examples of each specification, I’ve collected a series of datasheets from specific speakers of various types. The examples are listed below:

The included links will bring you to the bottom of this article where each of the speakers is described in more detail with all their specifications laid out as reference.

Alternatively, you can skip to the section Speaker Examples For This Article by clicking the link.

Speaker TypeReal-World Example
Passive PA SpeakerElectro-Voice ZLX-15
Powered PA SpeakerElectro-Voice ZLX-12P
Active PA SpeakerQSC KW153
Portable PA SpeakerDenon Professional Commander Sport
Digital Studio MonitorNeumann KH 120 D
Analog Studio MonitorYamaha HS5
Installed SpeakerJBL CSS8008
Computer SpeakersCyber Acoustics CA-3602
Bluetooth SpeakerJBL Charge 4
Smart Speaker DeviceSonos Move
SubwooferKlipsch Reference R-100SW
Tweeter (Individual Driver)Dayton Audio Mini-8
Coaxial Full-Range (Individual Driver)B&C 8CX21
Mid-Range Speaker (Individual Driver)Eminence Delta-10A
Woofer (Individual Driver)Dayton Audio RS225-8
Electrostatic SpeakerMartinLogan Classic ESL 9
Planar Magnetic SpeakerMagnepan 1.7i
Guitar CabinetOrange PPC112C

Without further ado, let’s jump into the speaker specifications!


List Of Speaker Specifications


Model Number

Each speaker has its own model number to distinguish it from other speakers from the same manufacturer.

This model number is typically given in the speaker’s official name but it is also sometimes restated in the specifications.

There are a few things we can garner from a model number, including (but not limited to):

  • Series.
  • Size of the driver or largest driver.
  • Number of crossover bands.
  • Impedance.
  • Type of transducer.
  • Whether the speaker is passive, powered or active.
  • If the speaker is wireless.

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

  • Part of the ZLX series
  • Largest driver is a 15″ woofer

Electro-Voice ZLX-12P

  • Part of the ZLX series
  • Largest driver is a 12″ woofer
  • P means it’s powered

QSC KW153

  • Part of the KW series
  • Largest driver is 15″
  • Has a 3-way crossover

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

  • Air motion transformer (AMT) transducer type
  • Tweeter (mini)
  • 8-ohm nominal impedance

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Features

The features section in speaker specifications sheets gives the manufacturer an opportunity to disclose the information they deem most important about the product.

It often includes critical or otherwise noteworthy specifications and qualitative characteristics about the speaker.

It also provides a copywriting chance for the marketing team to better sell the product.

Examples

QSC KW153

  1. Birch plywood enclosure
  2. Steel grille
  3. Front LED
  4. Cast aluminum handles (2)
  5. 1000 W Class D power module
  6. M10 rigging points (11)
  7. 35 mm pole socket
  8. Slip-resistant feet

B&C 8CX21

400 W continuous program power capacity
100° nominal coverage
75 – 20000 Hz response
94 dB sensitivity
34.5 mm (1.35”) HF unit exit diameter
XO-1 dedicated crossover network

JBL Charge 4

Wireless Bluetooth Streaming
20 hours of playtime
IPX7 waterproof
JBL Connect+
Durable fabric and rugged material
JBL Bass Radiator

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Configuration/Type

The configuration (often called “type”) of the speaker will ansswer the following questions:

  • Is the speaker active or passive?
  • How many crossover bands are there? In other words, is the speaker a 1-way, 2-way, 3-way or more?

Let’s define these factors quickly:

An active speaker will require external power to function properly due to its built-in amplifier(s). These amplifiers are put after the active crossover in true active speakers and before a passive crossover in powered speakers.

A passive speaker does not have an internal amplifier and requires an external amplifier in order to be driven properly. There are several specifications that apply especially to passive speakers because of this fact. They include:

  • Impedance
  • Sensitivity
  • Efficiency

To learn more about active and passive speakers, check out my article What Are The Differences Between Passive & Active Speakers?

A crossover is a network of filters that effectively splits the input audio signal into separate bands in order to drive the individual drivers more accurately and safely. The number of “ways” (2-way, 3-way, etc.) refers to the number of distinct bands. Passive crossovers come after the power amplifier while active crossovers come before the power amplifiers.

For more information on speaker crossovers, check out my detailed article What Is A Speaker Crossover Network? (Active & Passive).

Oftentimes if the speaker only has a single driver (a subwoofer, for example), this specification will only tell us if the speaker is active or passive. In this case, the spec may be simply stated as “active or passive.”

This specification is often obvious and sometimes omitted due to its inclusion in the speaker’s name and/or description.

Examples

QCS KW153

Configuration: 15″ 3-way trapezoidal loudspeaker

Yamaha HS5

Speaker type: 2-way bi-amp powered studio monitor

Magnepan 1.7i

Description: 3-Way, Full-Range, Quasi-Ribbon

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Frequency Response

The frequency response of a speaker is defined as the frequency range versus amplitude. In other words, it is the range of frequencies a speaker will produce within a certain tolerance (+/–) above or below the nominal amplitude.

Some manufacturer list the tolerance while other don’t. Typically, the tolerance is +/–3 dB but may be stated other wise.

If the tolerance is +/– 3 dB, the frequency response limits (both low and high) are at the point where the response passes below –3 dB compared to nominal.

Frequency response if nearly always stated in text but can be somewhat nebulous.

A frequency response graph gives us much more detail about how the frequency-dependent sensitivity of the speaker within the stated frequency response.

The graphs lay out the frequencies along the X-axis in Hertz and response (sensitivity) along the Y-axis in decibels. Sometimes impedance is also included in these graphs.

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

Frequency Response: 56 Hz – 18 kHz

Electro-Voice ZLX-15 Frequency/Impedance Response Graph
Picture Courtesy Of Electro-Voice

Neumann KH 120 D

  • -3 dB free-field frequency response: 52 Hz to 21 kHz, ±3 dB
  • Passband free-field frequency response: 54 Hz to 20 kHz, ±2 dB
Neumann KH 120 D Free-Field Frequency Response Graph
Picture Courtesy Of Neumann
Neumann KH 120 D Frequency Response Graph With Various Acoustic Controls
Picture Courtesy Of Neumann

Yamaha HS5

  • Overall Frequency Response:
    • –3 dB: 74 Hz – 24 kHz
Yamaha HS5 Frequency Response Graph

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Frequency Range

The frequency range of a speaker is the span of frequencies the speaker is capable of producing. It is written as a range from low to high.

However, just because a speaker is capable of producing a given frequency, doesn’t mean the amplitude of that frequency will be heard when the speaker is tasked with playing a full-range audio signal.

It’s always the case that the frequency range extends further than the frequency response for this reason. There are typically sharp sensitivity roll-offs at the low and high ends.

Therefore, at these extremes, the speaker may still be able to reproduce the frequencies but it does so relatively poorly.

Many manufacturers define their frequency ranges at the –10 dB points (remember that frequency response is generally defined at the –3 dB points).

Therefore, the range should always be wider than the response. Let’s look at the same example speakers as we did for frequency response:

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

Frequency Range: 44 Hz – 20 kHz

Neumann KH 120 D

Neumann gives two frequency response ratings but no frequency range.

Yamaha HS5

  • Overall Frequency Response:
    • –10 dB: 54Hz – 30kHz

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Usable Frequency Range

The usable frequency range applies to individual drivers and represents the range in which the manufacturer believes the driver will be useful.

There are various measurement techniques to find the usable frequency range.

The truth is that a single moving-coil speaker driver is really bad at producing all the audible frequencies. This is why most speakers have multiple drivers in 2-way, 3-way or other configurations.

Each driver, by nature, will perform at its best when tasked with producing a certain range of frequencies. This is what the usable frequency range specification aims to tell us.

Examples

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

Usable Frequency Range (Hz): 3,500 – 40,000 Hz

Note that the AMT Mini-8 is a tweeter.

Eminence Delta-10A

Usable Frequency Range: 63 Hz – 3.7 kHz

Note that the Delta-10A is a mid-range driver.

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Frequency Response: 28 – 2,400 Hz

Note that the RS225-8 is a woofer and that the specification is given simply as “frequency response” rather than “usable frequency range”.

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Sensitivity

The speaker sensitivity rating tells us how loud the speaker will be at a certain amount of amplifier power (or voltage).

This specification applies only to passive speakers, which rely on external amplifiers to drive them. Sensitivity, along with power handling and impedance specs, help us to match passive speakers to amplifiers with greater success.

Sensitivity ratings are generally measured as the sound pressure level (in dB SPL) at one meter on-axis from the speaker when 1 watt of power is supplied to the speaker from the amplifier.

Oftentimes a manufacturer will simply state their speaker’s sensitivity rating as a dB value.

It’s important to note that the audio used in measuring for sensitivity is typically a test tone of a single frequency. As we discussed previously in the frequency response specification, a speaker will have different sensitivity ratings at different frequencies.

Therefore, the manufacturer may use any of the following to measure the sensitivity specification:

  • Standard test tone of 1 kHz.
  • Another test tone frequency (perhaps at the point where the speaker is most sensitive)
  • Multiple test tones at varying frequencies (and then averaging the SPL).
  • A swept sine-wave between two frequencies.

Component speakers (which have multiple drivers with different axes) are measured as a whole with the SPL meter/microphone pointed in front of and toward the centre of the high-frequency driver.

Coaxial speakers (which have multiple drivers that share the same axis) are often measured as a whole or have their drivers measured independently.

Some manufacturers give sensitivity ratings at 2.83 volts RMS rather than at 1 watt.

This measurement came about with 8-ohm speakers. 1 watt of power sent to an 8-ohm speaker (assuming a constant impedance which is never the case) has a potential difference of 2.83 volts RMS.

We’ll discuss speaker impedance shortly.

To learn more about speaker sensitivity, check out my article The Full Guide To Loudspeaker Sensitivity & Efficiency Ratings.

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

Axial Sensitivity: 96 dB

Note that the ZLX-15 is a 2-way passive component speaker.

Magnepan 1.7i

Sensitivity: 86 dB 2.83V/1m @ 500 Hz

B&C 8CX21

Specifications LF Unit:

  • LF Sensitivity: 94.0 dB

Specifications HF Unit:

  • Sensitivity: 101.0 dB

Note that the B&C 8CX21 is a 2-way passive coaxial speaker.

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

Sensitivity: 88 dB @ 1W/1m

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Power Handling

The power handling specification refers to the maximum amount of power a speaker can handle before it will begin to burn-out and get damaged. It is measured in watts.

Like sensitivity, power handling specifications are really only practical with passive speakers. Power handing specifications help us to match passive speakers with amplifiers that will output appropriate levels of electric power.

Some powered speakers have specifications the read like “power ratings”. These specs refer to the amplifier power output of the speaker’s built-in amplifier.

Speaker drivers are notoriously inefficient and a lot of the power supplied to them by the amplifier is lost as heat. If too much power is sent to the speaker, it will not be capable of dissipating the heat and the voice coil with burn and/or or melt, rendering the speaker useless.

Power handling is a fairly easy specification to understand on the surface: do not exceed the maximum power handling of the speaker and the speaker will not be overloaded to the point of burn-out.

However, the way manufacturers test and publish power handling ratings makes this specification rather difficult to comprehend in practice.

There are numerous ways in which the power handling spec of a speaker is given. Though all are measured in watts, the “type” of watts varies. Rating values include:

Of all these specs, the peak value should never be surpassed.

However, with the other values, we can run more power to the speaker (at louder parts of a movie or music, for example) and still be safe so long as we’re not consistently over these points. Basically, the speaker coil can handle this much power without burning-out for a while but eventually it will not be able to dissipate the heat enough to keep from getting damaged.

What do these all mean? Unfortunately there is a lot of confusion. Different manufacturers use different terminology and some even have different definitions for the same terms.

It’s always best to find out how the manufacturer comes up with its speakers’ power handling specifications to know exactly what you’re reading when it comes to power handling.

That being said, let’s try to make sense of it all.


Peak Power Handling

Peak power handling refers to the maximum power the speaker can handle for an instant in time. If, at any point, the amplifier supplies more than the peak power rating, the speaker will sustain damage.

Peak power is often the preferred method for marketers as it gives the highest wattage rating.

Back to the main power handling explanation.


RMS Power Handling

RMS (root mean square) is technically a measurement of the square root of the mean square (the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of numbers).

RMS is used because the average of a test tone sine wave is actually zero (the sine wave oscillates between positive and negative values/peak). By squaring the sum of all instantaneous values of the sine wave, we can find the “average overall” strength.

The RMS value of a pure sine wave ends being √2/2 or 0.7071 times the peak.

Voltage and current can truly have RMS values. However, power, which is the product of voltage and current, cannot truly have an RMS value. RMS power is an erroneous term.

Unfortunately, RMS power handling has come to mean the amount of continuous power the speaker can handle. This is technically incorrect but I digress.

Back to the main power handling explanation.


Average Power Handling

The average power would technically be equal to the RMS current times the RMS voltage. Alternatively, it is equal to the RMS voltage squared divided by the resistance (or impedance at the given frequency) of the speaker.

Pavg = Irms • Vrms

Pavg = Vrms2 / R

However, power handling is rarely, if ever, given as “average.”

Back to the main power handling explanation.


Continuous Power Handling

Continuous power handling (often called, inaccurately “RMS power”) is the wattage that a speaker can comfortably handle for an extended period of time.

This can be tested by running pink noise through the speakers for hours on end at varying levels to find the point at which they burn-out. There are, as we’d expect, many other ways that manufacturers test this spec.

That being said, the continuous wattage rating will often end up being 25-50% of the peak power handling.

Continuous power handling specifications are the most useful because they give us a sense of the average power we can safely supply to the speaker for extended periods of time.

Back to the main power handling explanation.


Program Power Handling

The music/program rating is nearly always twice the continuous rating.  It is a higher rating because music has many peaks and dips and is not as abusive as a continuous signal. 

This rating is commonly defended as being a good rating to base our amplifier selection on.

Back to the main power handling explanation.


Nominal Power Handling

Unfortunately, there is great confusion about nominal power handling as well.

In some cases, it simply means the same thing as continuous power handling. It others, it’s defined as half the continuous rating.

And even more definitions can be found, including the following:

This is the maximum power handling of the speaker calculated at its nominal impedance.

It is the max theoretical electric power that would be transferred from amplifier to speaker if the loudspeaker was actually exhibiting its nominal impedance. The actual electric power may vary from about twice the nominal power down to less than one-tenth.

All this is to say, once again, that it’s best to find out how the manufacturer tests for power handling to properly understand the specification. It’s unfortunate, but power handling is actually a poor specification to use when comparing speaker and/or matching an amplifier to a speaker.

Back to the main power handling explanation.

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

Power Handling:

  • 250 Watts Continuous
  • 1000 Watts Peak

Electro-Voice ZLX-12P

Power Rating: 1000 Watts

Note that the ZLX-15P is powered and has a built-in amplifier to supply power to its drivers.

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

  • RMS Power Handling: 15 watts
  • Peak Power Handling: 30 watts

B&C 8CX21

Specifications LF Unit:

  • LF Nominal Power Handling: 200 W
  • LF Continuous Power Handling: 400 W

Specifications HF Unit:

  • Nominal Power Handling: 25 W
  • Continuous Power Handling: 50 W

2 hours test made with continuous pink noise signal within the range Fs-10Fs. Power calculated on rated minimum impedance. Loudspeaker in free air.
• Power on Continuous Program is defined as 3 dB greater than the Nominal rating.

Eminence Delta-10A

Power Rating:

  • Watts: 350 W
  • Music Program: 700 W

Multiple units exceed published ratings evaluated under EIA 426A specification while tested in a free-air, non-temperature-controlled environment.

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Maximum SPL

The maximum SPL specification of a speaker refers to the maximum sound pressure level (typically at a distance of 1 metre from the speaker) the speaker is capable of producing before burn-out.

That being said, some manufacturers will give ratings at different distances and even include long-term maximum SPL ratings that are analogous to the continuous power handling ratings.

Maximum SPL ratings are sometimes measured but are often calculated theoretically.

To calculate max. SPL in a passive speaker, we must know the sensitivity and power handling ratings. We must also know that every 3 dB increase in SPL requires a doubling of power.

With this knowledge, we can calculate the maximum SPL by taking the maximum power the speaker can handle and solving for the dB SPL value at 1 metre. In this way, we can find a peak, RMS, continuous, etc. max SPL.

The maximum SPL of an active speaker also has to do with the capabilities of the drivers. However, in active speakers, the amplifier should be designed to drive the drivers safely and so the max SPL should be relative to the maximum amplifier power output rating of the active speaker.

The measurement, therefore, is often done (directly or indirectly) with a test tone; several test tones; sweeping test tones, or other methods. Different distance may also be used in some spec sheets. In the case of multi-speaker setups, the max SPL will be different depending on the number of speakers engaged (particularly the subwoofer).

Note that as we move further (or closer) from/to the speaker relative to the 1-metre measurement point, the “max SPL” will vary. In fact, for every doubling of distance, we lose 6 dB of SPL.

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

Maximum SPL: 126 dB

QSC KW153

Maximum SPL (1 meter): 134 dB peak

Neumann KH 120 D

  • Max. SPL in full space / calc. in half-space at 3 % THD at 1 m, averaged between 100 Hz and 6 kHz: 105.1 dB SPL / 111.1 dB SPL
  • Bass capability (Max. SPL in half-space with 3 % THD at 1 m, averaged between 50 Hz and 100 Hz): 104.8 dB SPL
  • Max. short term SPL with IEC-weighted noise (IEC 60268-5) at 1 m, in typical listening conditions: 107 dB(C) SPL
  • Max. short term SPL with music material at 2.3 m, in typical listening conditions (pair):
    • 97 dB(C) SPL (full range)
    • 104 dB(C) SPL (with subwoofer)
  • Max. long term SPL with pink noise at 2.3 m, in typical listening conditions (single/pair):
    • 88/93 dB(C) SPL (full range)
    • 89/94 dB(C) SPL (with subwoofer)

Klipsch Reference R-100SW

Maximum Acoustic Output: 112 dB

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Amplifier Power Output

The amplifier power output specification only applies to powered and active speakers since they have built-in amplifiers.

So just like the power amplifiers that connect to passive speaker have rated output power, so to do the amps in powered and active speakers.

Note that there is a different between powered and active speakers:

Powered speakers have a built-in amp in-line before a passive crossover designed to split up a speaker level signal before sending the bands to their proper drivers.

Active speakers have active crossovers which split up line level signals into separate bands before sending each band to its own dedicated amplifier before it drives its intended driver.

Because the built-in amps and the drivers are specifically designed for the speaker, the entire system should be safe. Of course, accidents do happen and even active/powered speaker can sustain damage from power overload.

Note that, like the power handling specification, the amplifier output power is often defined as peak (dynamic), RMS, continuous, etc.

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-12P

Power Rating: 1000 Watts

Note that the ZLX-12P is powered, not active and this “1000 Watts” is peak.

QSC KW153

Amplifiers Power Output: 1000 W Class D (500 W LF, 500 W MF/HF) continuous

Note that the QSC KW153 is active, not powered.

Neumann KH 120 D

  • Woofer amplifier, continuous (peak) output power: 50 W (80 W), THD and noise < 0.1 % with deactivated limiter
  • Tweeter amplifier, continuous (peak) output power: 50 W (80 W), THD and noise < 0.1 % with deactivated limiter

Note that the Neumann KH 120 D is active, not powered.

Yamaha HS5

  • Output power:
    • Total: 70W (dynamic power)
    • LF: 45W (4 ohms)
    • HF: 25W (8 ohms)

Note that the Yamaha HS5 is active, not powered. “Dynamic power” is the same as “peak power”.

HEDD Audio Type20

Amplification (ICEpower®): 3 x 300W

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Drivers/Transducers

Sometimes the drivers are labelled as a single specification while other times each driver has its own specifications.

This specification will nearly also define the following:

  • The number of drivers used in the speaker.
  • The types of those drivers (subwoofer, woofer, mid-range speaker, tweeter, etc.).
  • The sizes (diameter) of the drivers.
  • Main speaker vs. satellite speakers in multi-speaker setups.

We may garner additional information from the specification depending on the manufacturer’s willingness to disclose the information:

  • The model name of the drivers.
  • The material of the drivers.
  • Other details the manufacturer find important for the consumer.

If it’s a single driver, this spec (if included) will tell us the intended type of driver it is (subwoofer, woofer, mid-range speaker, tweeter, etc.).

Examples

MartinLogan Classic ESL 9

  • High/Mid Frequency Driver: 44” x 9.2” (112 x 23.4 cm) CLS XStat electrostatic (405 in2/2,621 cm2)
  • Woofers: 2x 8” (20.3 cm) cast basket, high excursion, rigid aluminum cone with extended throw drive assembly, non-resonance asymmetrical chamber format.

QSC KW153

  • Low-frequency: 15″ cone transducer
  • Mid-frequency: 6.5″ mid-range cone transducer
  • High-frequency: 1.75″ diaphragm compression driver

B&C 8CX21

Specifications LF Unit:

  • LF Sensitivity: 94.0 dB
  • LF Nominal Power Handling: 200 W
  • LF Continuous Power Handling: 400 W
  • LF Voice Coil Diameter: 52mm (2.0 in)
  • LF Winding Material: Copper
  • LF Flux Density: 1.1 T
  • Former Material: Kapton
  • Winding Depth: 16.0mm (0.63 in)
  • Magnetic Gap Depth: 8.0mm (0.31 in)

Specifications HF Unit:

  • Sensitivity: 101.0 dB
  • Nominal Power Handling: 25 W
  • Continuous Power Handling: 50 W
  • Voice Coil Diameter: 36mm (1.4 in)
  • Winding Material: Aluminum
  • Flux Density: 1.45 T
  • Diaphragm Material: Polyester
  • Recommended Crossover: 2.2 kHz
  • Inductance: 0.14 mH

HEDD Audio Type20

Drivers:

  • Woofer: 7” (182mm) Ultra Honeycomb Composite
    • Voice coil Ø: 2” (50mm)
  • Midrange: 1 x 4“ (120mm) Ultra Honeycomb Composite
    • Voice coil Ø: 1.25“ (32mm)
  • Tweeter: 1x HEDD AMT (HEDD Air Motion Transformer)
    • Equiv. Diaphragm Ø: 2.2” (56mm)

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Impedance

Impedance, in the simplest sense, is the effective resistance of an electric circuit or component to alternating current, arising from the combined effects of ohmic resistance and reactance. It is measured in ohms (Ω).

Real world speaker impedance is a very complex measurement.

  • It varies with frequency.
  • Each driver has its own frequency-dependent impedance values.
  • Crossovers affect the impedance of the system.
  • The impedance of the speaker (load) has a significant affect on the amplifier (source) and vice versa.

So then what does a speaker impedance specification tell us?

The impedance rating of a speaker is typically an approximation of the nominal impedance rating, rounded to the nearest of the following values:

  • 4-ohms (most common in car audio speaker)
  • 6-ohms
  • 8-ohms (most common overall)
  • 16-ohms

Nominal values are loosely defined in the following manner: The impedance of the speaker shall not fall below 80% of the nominal impedance at any point within the speaker’s frequency range.

I use the term “loosely” here because, though it’s something to strive for, the strictness of fitting a speaker into the 4, 6, 8, 12 or 16-Ω standards and satisfying the 80% rule can be a bit tricky. Manufacturers, therefore, bend the rules a bit.

Sometimes a minimum impedance is also stated along with the elusive nominal value.

Some manufacturers offer an impedance graph, which helps us tremendously to find the actual frequency-dependent impedance of the speaker.

Impedance values are most important for passive speakers that require external amplifiers to function.

The speaker’s impedance acts as the load and the amplifier is the source.

Basically, all else being equal, a speaker with a lower impedance requires more current draw from the amplifier and, therefore, more power from the amplifier.

If an amplifier is incapable of providing the required current, it may clip and the speaker and/or amplifier may burn-out (or shut off iff protective circuits are put in place).

Note that the real output impedance of a power amplifier is usually less than 0.1 Ω but this is rarely specified. Rather, power amps are typically defined by a “rated output impedance” that states the nominal speaker impedance range (or single value) that the amp is capable of driving safely.

In most audio cases, we’re concerned with impedance bridging (aka voltage bridging) rather than impedance matching.

Matching impedances yield optimal power transfer. We’re concerned with optimal voltage transfer, which requires bridging (the load/speaker input impedance being magnitudes higher than the source/amplifier output impedance).

Of course, most amps can drive 4-ohms perfectly fine so long as they’re not turned up too loud. This amp spec is to protect manufacturers since people tend to like cranking their amps up.

That all being said, active/powered speakers will sometimes have impedance specifications as well. You’ll notice that these impedances are very high (in the 1000’s of ohms or kilohms).

This is because active/powered speakers have line level inputs rather than speaker level inputs. They, therefore, have different source impedances that drive them and provide different load impedances.

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

  • Nominal Impedance: 8 Ω
  • Minimum Impedance: 7 Ω
Electro-Voice ZLX-15 Frequency Response & Impedance Graph
Photo Courtesy Of Electro-Voice

QCS KW153

Input Impedance (Ω):

  • Channel A XLR /¼”:
    • Mic gain setting:
      • 0 dB: 38 kΩ (Balanced) 19 kΩ (Unbalanced)
      • +12 dB: 10 kΩ (Balanced) 5 kΩ (Unbalanced)
      • +24 dB: 2.66 kΩ (Balanced) 1.33 kΩ (Unbalanced)
      • +36 dB: 660 Ω (Balanced) 330 Ω (Unbalanced)
  • Channel B XLR /¼”: 38 kΩ balanced / 19 kΩ unbalanced
  • Channel B RCA: 10 kΩ

Note that the QCS is an active speaker. It does not have an impedance graph.

B&C 8CX21

  • Nominal Impedance: 8 Ω
  • Minimum Impedance LF: 6.1 Ω
  • Minimum Impedance HF: 7.2 Ω
B&C Impedance Graph
Picture Courtesy Of B&C

MartinLogan Classic ESL 9

Impedance: Nominal: 4 ohms, 0.8 ohms @ 20 kHz

The MartinLogan Classic ESL 9 does not have an impedance graph.

Orange PPC112C

Impedance: 16-Ohm

The Orange PPC112C does not have an impedance graph.

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Components

Components often refers to the drivers of the speakers.

Other times, it lists out other standout design components that make the speaker perform the way it does. These components are often found in the features section of the speaker specifications sheet though sometimes they are reserves for (and sometimes they are repeated) in the “components” section of the specifications.

Examples

Yamaha HS5

Components:

  • LF: 5″ cone
  • HF: 1″ dome

In this case, the components simply state the drivers of the HS5.

MartinLogan Classic ESL 9

Components:

  • Custom-wound audio transformer
  • Air-core coils
  • Low DCR steel laminate coils
  • Polyester capacitors

In this case, the list of high-end components is paramount in the superb functionality of the ESL 9.

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Crossover Frequency

The crossover frequency specification, as the name suggests, tells us the frequency (or frequencies) at which the speaker’s crossover splits the audio signal into separate bands.

Frequencies in the top band are generally sent to the tweeter while the low band is typically sent to the woofer. In 3-way systems, the mid-range is sent to a mid-range driver.

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

Crossover Frequency: 1.7 kHz

Neumann KH 120 D

Crossover frequency; crossover slope: 2.0 kHz; 24 dB/oct., 4th order

MartinLogan Classic ESL 9

Crossover Frequency: 380 Hz

HEDD Audio Type20

Crossover frequency: 250Hz / 2.5kHz

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Crossover

Some manufacturers (like B&C) give plenty of details about the crossover used in their multi-driver speakers.

These specs are similar to those we’d find about speakers themselves and include:

  • Model number
  • Filter Type
  • Impedance
  • Low-Pass Slope
  • High-Pass Slope
  • Crossover Frequency
  • Dimensions
  • Weight

Example

B&C 8CX21

Crossover:

  • Model: XO-1
  • Filter Type: Two-way
  • Nominal Impedance: 8.0 Ω
  • Low-pass Slope: 12.0 dB/oct
  • High-pass Slope: 12.0 dB/oct
  • Overall Dimensions: 107×96 mm (4.2×3.8 in)
  • Weight: 0.4 kg (0.9 lb)

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When dealing with individual speaker drivers, the manufacturer will sometimes include a recommended crossover frequency.

If the speaker is a tweeter and has a recommended crossover, it would be near the low-end of its frequency response.

If the speaker is a woofer and has a recommended crossover point, it would be near the top-end of its frequency response.

Mid-range drivers may have two recommended crossover frequency points.

Individual coaxial speakers sometimes come without a crossover network and so the manufacturer will recommend a point at which the user should ideally put a crossover point.

Example

B&C 8CX21

Recommended Crossover: 2.2 kHz

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The vast majority of speaker drivers and even full-range speaker units are not designed to produce the lowest (sub-bass) frequencies of the audible frequency range. This is why subwoofers are used.

However, some speakers do not have built-in high-pass filters in their crossovers to block low-frequency information from reaching their drivers.

Note that, when this is the case, it’s typically only the woofer that will experience the low-end frequencies of the audio signal since the crossover filters higher bands for the tweeter and mid-range drivers.

Including a recommended high-pass frequency will improve the sound and efficiency of the speaker by not sending frequencies the speaker is naturally incapable (or otherwise bad) at recreating.

It’s especially important to high-pass main speakers when using a subwoofer to avoid muddying up the low-end.

Example

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

Recommended HP Frequency: 40 Hz

Note that the ZLX-15 has a frequency response from 56 Hz – 18 kHz and a frequency range from 44 Hz – 20 kHz.

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Coverage/Dispersion

The coverage/dispersion specification refers to the directionality of the speaker’s sound output.

It’s important to note that sound is naturally more directional at higher frequencies (and more omnidirectional at lower frequencies). For this reason, subwoofers, which are intended to produce sub-bass and bass frequencies do not have coverage/dispersion specifications.

The coverage can be imagined as a 3-dimensional conical-shaped sound front emanating from the speaker. The limits of the coverage are often defined as a -6 dB drop from the on-axis (directly in front of the speaker) SPL.

Of course, lower frequencies are less directional than higher frequencies so this specification is quite difficult to define across the entire audible spectrum. This specification, therefore, will likely be based on a single-frequency test tone.

The coverage spec is often given as an angle along the horizontal plane that cuts through the on-axis line of the speaker and another angle along the vertical plane that cuts through the on-axis line.

Alternatively, we could have a conical or axisymmetric dispersion that has the same horizontal and vertical angles about the on-axis line.

With non-dynamic speaker drivers that move in a bipolar fashion (like electrostatic and planar magnetic speakers), the dispersion is often described as a line source.

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-12P

Coverage (Horizontal x Vertical): 90° x 60°

QSC KW153

Nominal Coverage (-6 dB): 75° axisymmetric

MartinLogan Classic ESL 9

Dispersion:

  • Horizontal: 30 Degrees
  • Vertical: 44” (112 cm) line source

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Connectors

The connectors (inputs and outputs) or a speaker are generally all listed in the speaker’s specifications sheet.

There are plenty of audio connection types out there and a wide variety of speakers that may or may not use any number of these connections.

All wired speakers (as opposed to wireless) would require at least one input.

Passive speakers generally have input connections that are standard with carrying speaker level signals. Many passive speakers will come with a “through” output that allows the user to chain multiple speakers together (in parallel or in series).

Active and powered speakers generally have input connectors that are standard with line level (and mic level) signals. They also having power inputs and often have outputs.

Without getting into the details of any specific connector types, let’s look at the examples:

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

Connectors: Dual NL4

Electro-Voice ZLX-12P

Connectors:

  • (2) XLR/TRS Combo Jack
  • (1) 3.5 mm Input
  • (1) XLR link Output

QSC KW153

Connectors:

  • Balanced female XLR /¼” line/mic level input
  • Balanced female XLR /¼” line level input
  • Dual Balanced male XLR full range line level out
  • Balanced male XLR “mix” out
  • Stereo RCA line level input
  • Remote gain control
  • Locking IEC power connector

Denon Professional Commander Sport

Connectors:

  • (1) XLR/1/4″ TRS combo jack
  • (1) 1/4″ (6.35mm) output
  • (1) 1/8″ (3.5mm) input
  • (2) USB ports
  • (1) IEC AC power input

Neumann KH 120 D

Analog input:

  • Input type: XLR, electronically balanced

Digital input/output:

  • Signal format BNC: AES3, S/P-DIF

Cyber Acoustics CA-3602

  • Plug Type: Chrome, 3.5 mm plug
  • Headphone Output: Yes
  • Aux Input: Yes

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Common-Mode Rejection Ratio

Common-mode rejection ratio is an uncommon speaker specification that only applies to active/powered speakers with balanced inputs.

Balanced audio, briefly, carries the same audio signal in opposite polarity on two audio wires relative to one ground wire in a balanced cable.

At the balanced input (generally an XLR), a differential amplifier sums the differences between the two audio wires and cancels out any noise (particularly electromagnetic interference) that was picked up by and common to both audio wires.

The CMR ratio is the ratio between the differential gain and common mode gain measured in dB, ideally across a given frequency range.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

CMRR:

  • > 56 dB, 100 Hz to 10 kHz (ANALOG mode)
  • > 56 dB, 100 Hz to 12 kHz (ANALOG DELAYED mode)

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Maximum Input Level

The maximum input level is another rare specification that is reserved for active and powered speakers that have internal amps and accept line level signals.

Passive speakers deal with power handling rather than signal voltage level.

The maximum input level specification refers to the maximum signal level at a speaker input before a certain level of signal distortion happens.

This is generally measured with a single-frequency test tone (1 kHz for example) and a threshold defined by a specific amount of total harmonic distortion (1% for example).

It is typically measured in dBu to keep in line with the professional line level standard (nominally +4 dBu).

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Maximum input level:

  • 24 dBu (ANALOG mode)
  • 18 dBu (ANALOG DELAYED mode)

HEDD Audio Type20

Maximum input level (balanced / unbalanced): 6Vrms (+17.8dBu, +17.6dBV) / 4.5Vrms (+15.3dBu, +13.0dBV)

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Some high-end speaker manufacturers include a specification for recommended amplifier power. This is the optimal power to drive the speaker.

This is typically noted as a range of watts an amplifier should be capable of producing.

Some even include the optimal rated load impedance of the amp into the specification as well though this information could be found by looking at the speaker’s nominal impedance.

Example

MartinLogan Classic ESL 9

Recommended Amplifier Power: 50–400 watts per channel at 4 Ohms

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Infrasonic Filter Frequency/Slope

In contrast to the recommended high-pass frequency specification, some speakers (particularly monitors) have built-in HP filters to remove low-end and infrasonic frequencies from their circuitries.

Practically speaking, these filters are put in place to help protect the speaker units from surges in the low end that could potentially cause electrical or mechanical damage. They are not so much included to reduce low-end noise from the speaker’s output (though they do that, too).

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Infrasonic filter frequency; slope: 30 Hz; 6 dB/oct.

Note that the low points of the KH 120 D’s frequency response/range are wll above this 30 Hz. I’ll restate them here:

  • -3 dB free-field frequency response: 52 Hz to 21 kHz, ±3 dB
  • Passband free-field frequency response: 54 Hz to 20 kHz, ±2 dB

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Self-Generated Noise

Self-generated noise refers to the noise produced by the internal amplifiers and other electronics of the speaker.

The specification is generally listed in dB SPL (A-weighted, which is based on our actual hearing perception) at a certain distance from the speaker. It is also measured at a specific amount of gain supplied by the speaker.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Self-generated noise (with input gain set to 100 dB for 0 dBu): <20 dB(A) at 10 cm

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Signal-To-Noise Ratio

The signal-to-noise ratio is another specification that refers to the noise generated by the circuits of speakers.

Active/powered speakers are more likely to have SNR specifications since amplifiers and active circuits generate relatively high levels of noise (due to gain).

Passive speakers also output noise, though this noise is often in the output signal of the connected amplifier and is not generated within the speaker. Therefore, the spec is rarely, if ever, found. inpassive speakers.

SNR tells us how much “noise” is there in the output (sound that we hear) of a speaker in relation to the signal level. It is expressed in decibels (dB).

Higher signal-to-noise ratios are better for cleaner audio signals and speaker sound.

Example

JBL Charge 4

Signal-to-noise ratio: >80dB

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Total Harmonic Distortion

Total harmonic distortion is rather odd specification in the way that it tells us information.

THD is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present in a signal and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency.

It is calculated with a simple sine wave (a single frequency) and is stated as a percentage.

The goal of the THD specification is to show the point (of power, voltage, SPL or SPL) at which the speaker will begin to exhibit distortion. This is often described as either 0.5% or 1% THD.

So any THD specification actually tells us the point at which we should be concerned about distortion. It is up to the manufacturer to define a THD percentage at which the distortion will be audible and it is up to us as users to avoid exceeding this limit if we are to keep the speaker sounding clean.

Examples

Neumann KH 120 D

Total harmonic distortion < 0.5 % at 95 dB SPL at 1 m: >100 Hz

  • Max. SPL in full space / calc. in half-space at 3 % THD at 1 m, averaged between 100 Hz and 6 kHz: 105.1 dB SPL / 111.1 dB SPL
  • Bass capability (Max. SPL in half-space with 3 % THD at 1 m, averaged between 50 Hz and 100 Hz): 104.8 dB SPL
  • Woofer amplifier, continuous (peak) output power: 50 W (80 W), THD and noise < 0.1 % with deactivated limiter
  • Tweeter amplifier, continuous (peak) output power: 50 W (80 W), THD and noise < 0.1 % with deactivated limiter
  • THD+N:
    • analog delayed: < -104 dB
    • digital: < -106 dB

Cyber Acoustics CA-3602

  • Wattage (Satellites): Each speaker: 6 watts/ch @ 4 ohm @ 10% THD
  • Wattage (Subwoofer): 18 watts @ 4 ohm @ 10% THD

HEDD Audio Type20

THD 90dB/1m > 100Hz: ≤0.5 %

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Digital Input/Output

Though there isn’t an abundance of digital speakers out there with professional-grade digital I/O, these specs are still worth mentioning.

As the name suggests, these specifications refer to the inputs and outputs of the speaker that deal with digital signal transfer rather than analog signal transfer.

Digital I/O specifications include:


Signal Format

There are plenty of digital signal formats (known as interfaces) available. This specification tells us which standard is being used and oftentimes the input/output connection that is used to transfer the signal format.

Digital signal formats/interfaces include (but are not limited to):

  • S/PDIF
  • AES3
  • AES3-id
  • AES42
  • ADAT
  • MADI
  • MADI-X
  • SuperMAC
  • HyperMAC

Examples

Neumann KH 120 D

Signal format BNC: AES3, S/P-DIF

HEDD Audio Type20

Digital/HEDD Bridge Options: AES67 Ravenna, Dante, AES3/EBU

Back to main explanation of Digital I/O.


Impedance

Yes, even digital connections have some sort of input impedance. This spec refers to just that.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Impedance BNC, unbalanced: 75 Ω (input and output)

Back to main explanation of Digital I/O.


Input Switching

Oftentimes digital speakers will also have multiple digital inputs and even analog inputs.

Input switching allows the user to select the appropriate input for the speaker.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Input switching: Analog/Digital A/Digital B/Digital A+B

Back to main explanation of Digital I/O.


Digital Converter

The digital converter (often called the digital-to-analog converter or DAC) is a critical component of a digital speaker. It acts to convert the digital information into analog audio (AC voltage) signals that can properly drive the speaker’s drivers to produce sound.

The digital converter specs often refer to two key factors:

  • Sample rate: measured in Hertz, this is the number of times the digital audio is sampled per second.
  • Bit-depth: measured in bits, this is the number of potential amplitudes for each sample.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

  • Digital converter: resolution
    • 16 … 24-bit
  • Digital converter: sampling rates [kHz]*
    • 22.05, 24, 32, 44.1, 48, 64, 88.2, 96, 176.4, 192

Back to main explanation of Digital I/O.


Digital Sensitivity

Analog sensitivity measures the sound pressure level at 1 meter when 1 watt of electrical power is sent to the speaker.

Digital sensitivity measures the sound pressure level at 1 meter when a given dBFS (decibels Full Scale) is sent to the speaker.

Note that 0 dBFS is the absolute limit in digital audio so all dBFS values will be negative unless the signal is distorting due to digital clipping.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Digital sensitivity: -18 dBFS = 100 dB SPL at 1 m

Back to main explanation of Digital I/O.


Dynamic Range

The DAC and the digital speaker as a whole will have a certain dynamic range. This is the difference between the quietest sound the speaker can produce and the loudest sound the speaker can produce.

So during the digital-to-analog (D-A) conversion, the speaker will have a dynamic range limit.

If the digital speaker has analog inputs, it will likely still run the incoming signal through its digital circuitry. This means the speaker should also have a dynamic range limit for analog-to-digital-to-analog (A-D-A) conversion.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Dynamic range: A-D-A, D-A: > 116 dB(A), 123 dB(A)

Back to main explanation of Digital I/O.


THD+N

This specification refer to the total harmonic distortion plus the noise of the digital circuit.

It is generally measured in negative decibels to refer to how quiet the THD+N is relative to the signal.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

THD+N:

  • analog delayed: < -104 dB
  • digital: < -106 dB

Back to main explanation of Digital I/O.


Maximum Delay (Time / Distance)

However fast audio signals travel (both analog and digital), it still takes time to get them from point A to point B.

Maximum delay time gives us the slowest rate at which the signals will travel through lengths of cable.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Maximum delay (time / distance): 409.5 ms / 140.87 m (462′ 2″)

Back to main explanation of Digital I/O.


Maximum Delay Audio-Video Synchronization

When synchronizing video and audio (within a digital audio workstation, for example), any delay can prove unsettling.

The maximum delay audio-video synchronization tells us the max offset due to the speaker itself.

Note that there are other factors to take into account. Most DAWs can be manually offset to fix sync issues.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Maximum delay audio-video synchronization (lip sync):

  • 10.2 at 40 ms/frame
  • 12.3 at 33 ms/frame

Back to main explanation of Digital I/O.


Minimum Delay Resolution (Time / Distance)

This refers to the minimum signal delay that is possible from the speaker and cable running to the speaker.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Minimum delay resolution (time / distance): 0.1 ms / 3.44 cm (1 3/8″)

Back to main explanation of Digital I/O.


Latency D-A

DACs (and ADCs) and other digital systems produce latency. Latency is essentially the short period of delay (usually measured in milliseconds) between when an audio signal enters a system and when it emerges.

In the case of digital-to-analog conversion, the latency refers to the time it takes for the conversion to happen.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Latency D-A (with delay = 0 ms) **

  • 1.84 ms at 22.05 kHz
  • 1.70 ms at 24 kHz
  • 1.28 ms at 32 kHz
  • 0.93 ms at 44.1 kHz
  • 0.86 ms at 48 kHz
  • 0.64 ms at 64 kHz
  • 0.47 ms at 88.2 kHz
  • 0.43 ms at 96 kHz
  • 0.24 ms at 176.4 kHz
  • 0.22 ms at 192 kHz

Back to main explanation of Digital I/O.


Latency A-D-A

This specification refers to the time it takes for the speaker to convert an incoming analog signal into a digital signal; process it digitally, and then convert it back to an analog signal to drive the drivers.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Latency A-D-A (with delay = 0 ms): 0.54 ms

Back to main explanation of Digital I/O.

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Enclosure Type

If we’re dealing with speaker units (as opposed to individual standalone drivers), we’ll also be dealing with enclosures.

A speaker enclosure is essentially the box in which the speaker driver is designed into.

Though perhaps a seemingly small detail, the enclosure type (and size) plays a major role in determining the speaker’s overall sound; sensitivity; directionality; mechanical limitations; mounting; acoustic resonance(s), and even its impedance.

Examples

Klipsch Reference R-100SW

Enclosure Type: Bass-Reflex via rear-firing port

Yamaha HS5

Shape: Bass reflex type

Orange PPC112C

Features:

  • 1″ x 12″ Closed-Back Design

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Box Tuning Frequency

The box tuning frequency describes the frequency at which air naturally resonates through the port of a ported enclosure. Air coming out of the port naturally reinforces the bass or sub-bass that the speaker (often a subwoofer) is playing.

This tuning frequency commonly causes a spike in the impedance of the speaker at the frequency and may cause a spike in frequency response unless the speaker is properly damped at that point.

No Examples

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Grille

The grille specification describes the grille(s) of the speaker (if they are part of the design).

A speaker grille provides protection from foreign particles and, to varying degrees, humidity.

This specifications will generally describe the following aspects of the grille:

  • Grille material
  • Gauge of the grille’s wire
  • Finish/color of the grille

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-12P

Grille: 18 Gauge Steel with Black Powder Coat

QSC KW153

Grille: Black powder coated 16 gauge steel

Orange PPC112C

Features:

  • Hard Wearing Woven Paper Grille Cloth

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Material

Any given speaker is made of many different materials. Therefore, there are many different material specifications we’ll find on a speaker’s data sheet:


Enclosure Material

The material(s) the speaker enclosure is made of.

Enclosure material plays a role in the overall weight; the acoustics and aesthetics of speaker design.

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

Enclosure: Polypropylene

QSC KW153

Enclosure: 15 mm painted birch plywood

Yamaha HS5

Cabinet material: MDF

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Magnet Material

The material(s) the speaker driver magnet is made of.

Magnet material plays a role on the overall weight; magnetic flux density; sensitivity/efficiency, and resonances of the speaker driver.

Examples

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

Features:

  • Powerful, lightweight neodymium magnet structure for low

B&C 8CX21

Magnet Material: Ceramic

Eminence Delta-10A

Materials Of Construction:

  • Ferrite magnet

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Magnet Material: Ferrite

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Winding Material

The material(s) the speaker driver winding is made of. The winding is the wire that makes up the voice coil.

Winding material has an effect on power handling (due to conductance and thermal properties) and sensitivity.

Examples

B&C 8CX21

Specifications LF Unit:

  • LF Winding Material: Copper

Specifications HF Unit:

  • Winding Material: Aluminum

Eminence Delta-10A

Materials Of Construction:

  • Aluminum voice coil

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Voice Coil Wire Material: Copper

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Former Material

The material(s) the speaker driver former is made of. The former is the tube that the voice coil wraps around.

Former material plays a role in speaker longevity and should be heat resistant so as to not burn up when the voice coil gets hot.

Examples

B&C 8CX21

Specifications LF Unit:

  • Former Material: Kapton

Eminence Delta-10A

Materials Of Construction:

  • Polyimide former

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Voice Coil Former: Aluminum

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Diaphragm Material

The material(s) the speaker driver diaphragm is made of.

Diaphragm material affects the speaker’s overall weight and resonances; its frequency and transient response; its damping factor, and many other specifications.

Examples

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

Features:

  • Folded Kapton ribbon diaphragm

B&C 8CX21

Specifications HF Unit:

  • Diaphragm Material: Polyester

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Cone/Diaphragm Material: Black Anodized Aluminum Cone

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Surround Material

The material(s) the speaker driver surround is made of. The surround is the part of the speaker suspension that effectively holds the voice coil in place and keeps it moving only in the z-axis (and not in the y and x-axes).

Example

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Surround Material: Rubber

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Basket/Frame Material

The material(s) the speaker driver’s basket, frame or housing is made of.

Basket material affects the overall weight, durability and resonances of the speaker driver.

Examples

Dayton Audio RS225-8

  • Basket/Frame Material: Cast Aluminum

Eminence Delta-10A

Materials Of Construction:

  • Pressed steel basket

Back to the main section on speaker material.

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Dimensions

As we can imagine, with so many parts and design complexities, there are a lot of dimensions to consider when designing (and sharing the design specifications) of a speaker.

The dimensions we’ll often find defined on a speaker specification sheet are:


Height, Width & Depth

The height, width and depth (H, W, D) specifications typically apply to speaker units that are complete with enclosures. It refers to the overall outer dimension of a single speaker unit (or of several units if it is a multi-speaker powered system).

Speakers will usually have a preferred position. The drivers are obviously at the front face and the speakers generally have a “bottom” (though loudspeakers are often sat tilted on their sides and monitors are sometimes repositioned to sit on their sides as well).

So then, the height is the vertical measurement of the overall speaker unit; the width is the horizontal measurement across the front (or back) face, and the depth measures the distance between the front and back.

Examples

Neumann KH 120 D

Dimensions (H x W x D): 277 x 182 x 220 mm (107 /8″ x 71 /8″ x 85 /8″)

Klipsch R-100SW

  • Height: 14.5” (368 mm)
  • Width: 12.5” (318 mm)
  • Depth: 16.4” (417 mm)

Cyber Acoustics CA-3602

  • Satellite Dimensions: (H) 8 in. X (W) 3 in. X (D) 3 in.
  • Subwoofer Dimensions: (H) 10 in. X (W) 8 in. X (D) 8 in.

Back to the main section on speaker dimensions.


Voice Coil Diameter

This specification refers to the diameter of the outside of the voice coil.

Generally speaking, larger voice coils allow for greater amplifier control over the speaker but increase the cost of manufacturing.

A wider voice coil also typically has a greater surface area which means it reacts better to the magnetic field/flux of the magnet while also being more efficient as dispersing heat. This effectively improves the sensitivity and power handling.

Examples

B&C 8CX21

Specifications LF Unit:

  • LF Voice Coil Diameter: 52mm (2.0 in)

Specifications HF Unit:

  • Voice Coil Diameter: 36mm (1.4 in)

Eminence Delta-10A

Voice Coil Diameter: 2.5″, 64mm

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Voice Coil Diameter: 38 mm

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Winding Depth

The winding depth (voice coil depth) refers to the height (rather than the diameter) of the voice coil.

Again, a greater winding depth gives greater surface area which improves sensitivity and power handling (heat dissipation).

In order to maintain linearity in the speaker, the percentage of the voice coil in the gap must remain constant during movement. This can be achieves with a deep/tall voice coil and a thin/short pole piece or a shallow/short voice coil and a thick/tall pole piece.

Care must be taken so that the coil does not hit against the magnet.

Example

B&C 8CX21

Specifications LF Unit:

  • Winding Depth: 16.0mm (0.63 in)

Back to the main section on speaker dimensions.


Magnetic Gap Depth

The magnetic gap depth measures the distance between the front pole plate and the pole piece of the speaker’s magnetic structure. It is within this circular gap that the voice coil oscillates.

A shorter magnetic gap depth increases the magnetic flux density of the speaker’s magnet around the voice coil and, therefore, improves the sensitivity and efficiency of the speaker.

Note that the gap depth must be large enough to safely allow the coil to move without touching the magnets and pole pieces.

Examples

B&C 8CX21

Specifications LF Unit:

  • Magnetic Gap Depth: 8.0mm (0.31 in)

Eminence Delta-10A

Gap Height: 0.375″, 9.5mm

Back to the main section on speaker dimensions.


Cutout Diameter

The cutout diameter of a speaker driver refers to the diameter without the ring/flange (the outer rim that allows for the physical mounting of the driver to an enclosure or surface). A hole the size of the driver’s cutout diameter must be made in order for the driver to sit properly within the enclosure/surface.

This specification is important to know when mounting individual drivers. The cutout in the enclosure should match up with the cutout diameter of the speaker driver in order for the driver to fit into the enclosure while also allowing it to be safely mounted (screwed in) to the enclosure through its flange/ring (not included in the cutout diameter).

Examples

B&C 8CX21

Baffle Cutout Diameter: 187 mm (7.4 in)

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Baffle Cutout Diameter: 184 mm

JBL CSS8008

Cutout Diameter:

  • Open-back: 216 mm (8.5 in)
  • In CSS-BB backcan: 295 mm (11.7 in)

Back to the main section on speaker dimensions.


Internal Net Volume/External Volume

The internal net volume and external volume refer to the total volume inside the enclosure and the volume of the exterior of the enclosure, respectively.

External volume is calculates by multiplying the height, width and depth of the enclosure in cubic designs (it is more complicated in more complex shapes).

Internal volume is typically calculated by subtracting the volume of the enclosure material its (which comes from knowing the thickness of the enclosure material) from the external volume.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Internal net volume/external volume: 6.5 l/9.7 l

If we have a look at the KH 120 D, we can see how the odd shape of the speaker affects the volume. Performing the calculation of W x H x D, we find that the actual volume is less than the dimension measurements since the speaker is not a perfect box.

For reference: Dimensions (H x W x D): 277 x 182 x 220 mm (107 /8″ x 71 /8″ x 85 /8″)

Back to the main section on speaker dimensions.


Nominal Diameter

The nominal diameter is a specification that makes it easy to refer to the size of a speaker driver (particularly to the diameter of the diaphragm).

When we state “that’s a 10″ speaker” or “that’s a 15″ subwoofer” or “that’s a 1″ tweeter”, we are referring to the nominal diameter.

The actual diameter of the speaker’s diaphragm, where it meets the surround, may not be exactly the nominal diameter. In most cases, it isn’t.

The diameter could be a few mm from the nominal value. However, the speaker will generally perform as if its nominal diameter is true.

Perhaps the biggest advantage of using nominal diameters is that we can state the above example statements of “10” speaker”; “15” subwoofer”, or “1” tweeter” rather than “10 1/32” speaker”; 1415/16” subwoofer” or “63/64” tweeter”. This makes life much easier!

Examples

B&C 8CX21

Nominal Diameter: 210mm (8.0 in)

Eminence Delta-10A

Nominal Basket Diameter: 10,0″, 254mm

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Nominal Diameter: 8″

Back to the main section on speaker dimensions.


Overall Diameter

The overall diameter specification applies to individual speaker drivers. It tells us the maximum diameter of the speaker including its outer flange/ring that provides mounting possibilities.

Examples

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

Overall Outside Diameter: 40.5 mm

B&C 8CX21

Mounting & Dimensions:

  • Overall Diameter: 225 mm (8.8 in)

Eminence Delta-10A

Overall Diameter: 10.09’’, 256.3 mm

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Overall Outside Diameter: 223 mm

Back to the main section on speaker dimensions.


Overall Depth

The overall depth of a speaker driver measured from the outermost part of the speaker flange or cone (dust cap) to the rear of the magnet.

Examples

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

Overall Depth: 23mm

B&C 8CX21

  • Depth: 135 mm (5.3 in)

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Depth: 4.25”, 108.0 mm

Back to the main section on speaker dimensions.


Top Mounting Depth

Distance from the back of the magnet to the rear of the flange/ring of a speaker driver.

No examples

Back to the main section on speaker dimensions.


Bottom Mounting Depth

Distance from the back of the magnet to the front of the flange/ring of a speaker driver.

No examples

Back to the main section on speaker dimensions.

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Mounting

Speakers are often mounted into position.

For example, PA speaker units can be mounted on stands; installed speakers can be mounted in walls, ceilings, or elsewhere, and individual speaker drivers are often purchased to be mounted within an enclosure.

So as we can imagine, there are plenty of different specifications that refer to the mounting of a speaker depending on the style of mounting required for that speaker.

Let’s get into the types of speaker mounting specifications we’ll encounter in data sheets:


Bolt Circle Diameter

Most standalone drivers have a circular flange with bolt holes that we drill through to mount the driver to an enclosure or surface.

Because of the circular nature and the need for several drill/connection points, the drill holes around the flange are generally equal distance from the centre of the driver.

These centre points of these drill points can be thought of as being on a concentric circle within the overall diameter of the driver. The bolt circle diameter is the diameter of such an imaginary circle.

In other words, it is the measurement from the centre of one bolt hole to the bolt hole on the other side of the speaker.

Knowing this measurement helps us in purchasing or building an enclosure for the speaker.

Examples

JBL CSS8008

Bolt Mounting Circle to Backcan: 4 points on 286 mm (11.25 in) diameter

B&C 8CX21

Bolt Circle Diameter: 210 mm (8.3 in)

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Baffle Cutout Diameter

The baffle cutout diameter is the diameter of the circle we must cut out of the enclosure to properly fit the speaker driver.

Cutting a hole too small will not allow the rear of the driver to fit.

Cutting a hole too big will lead to issues when securing the driver in place (or, in extreme cases, the cutout will be larger than the driver diameter itself and no mounting would be possible).

Examples

B&C 8CX21

Baffle Cutout Diameter: 187 mm (7.4 in)

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Baffle Cutout Diameter: 184 mm

JBL CSS8008

Cutout Diameter:

  • Open-back: 216 mm (8.5 in)
  • In CSS-BB backcan: 295 mm (11.7 in)

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Flange And Gasket Thickness

This refers to the thickness of the flange and gasket and tells us how far the flange will stick out from the enclosure.

The flange is the outer circle of the driver that allows us to bolt the driver in place in an enclosure.

Example

B&C 8CX21

Flange and Gasket Thickness: 11 mm (0.4 in)

Back to the main section on speaker mounting.


The recommended enclosure volume (often given as the Thiele-Small parameters Vb and Vc) is the manufacturer-recommended volume of the enclosure for an individual speaker driver.

This volume can be for a ported/vented enclosure (as is the case with Vb) or a closed/sealed enclosure (as is the case with Vc).

Example

Eminence Delta-10A

Recommended Enclosure Volume:

  • Sealed: N/A
  • Vented: 12.70–37.90 litres, 0.45–1.34 cu.ft.

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# Mounting Holes

This refers to the number of bolt/drill holes in the flange.

Example

Dayton Audio RS225-8

# Mounting Holes: 6

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Threaded Inserts

Threaded inserts typically refer to the mounting of enclosures. If a permanent or semi-permanent installation is wanted, some speaker units have heavy duty threaded connectors.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Threaded inserts for Neumann mounting hardware: 2 x M8 on rear panel with depth 15 mm (5 /8″)

Back to the main section on speaker mounting.


Pole Socket

Though rarely found as a line on the specification sheet, the pole socket dimensions are an important piece of information about a speaker unit.

Oftentimes PA speakers will have pole sockets in order to be mounted on a stand. Knowing this information is important and can often be found in CAD drawings of the speaker rather than in the listed specs.

Most PA speaker manufacturers will have compatible speaker stands for their speakers so it’s usually pretty easy to find a match.

No Examples

Back to the main section on speaker mounting.

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Weight

Speakers are physical devices and have inherent weight.


Net Weight

The net weight refers to the weight of the entire speaker including all of its components.

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

  • Net Weight: 16.6 kg (36.5 lbs)

JBL CSS8008

  • Net Weight (ea): 1.27 kg (2.8 lb)

Sonos Move

  • Weight: 6.61 lb (3.0 kg) (including the battery)

Magnet Weight

The magnet weight refers to the weight of the magnetic structure (magnet and the pole plates/pieces) of the speaker and is generally only found in individual driver spec sheets.

Example

Eminence Delta-10A

Magnet Weight: 56 oz.


Shipping Weight

The shipping weight refers to the combined weight of the speaker; any accessories, and the shipping container/safety pieces that come with the speaker when ordered from the manufacturer or retailer.

Shipping weight may be a concern for the purchaser when buying a speaker and having it delivered.

Examples

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

  • Shipping Weight: 22.0 kg (48.3 lbs)

JBL CSS8008

  • Shipping Weight (ea): 1.94 kg (4.3 lb)

Eminence Delta-10A

Shipping Weight: 12.00 lbs , 5.44 kg

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Finish

Aesthetics is a big part of speaker design. The finish refers to the exterior look of the speaker.

Examples

QSC KW153

  • Finish: Black textured paint

Neumann KH 120 D

Cabinet surface finish, Color:

  • Painted aluminium
  • Anthracite (RAL 7021) or
  • White (9016) or
  • Other RAL color

Klipsch Reference R-100SW

Finishes:

  • Black
  • Textured Wood Grain
  • Vinyl

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Color

Color is another specification to tell us how the speaker will look.

Examples

Neumann KH 120 D

Cabinet surface finish, Color:

  • painted aluminium
  • Anthracite (RAL 7021) or
  • White (9016) or
  • other RAL color

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

  • Color: Black

Dayton Audio RS225-8

  • Color: Black

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Controls

Speakers will often have circuits that allow for some amount of control by the user. These switches and potentiometers are defined in the “controls” specification of the speaker’s spec sheet.

Common controls include:

  • Power
  • Gain
  • Volume
  • EQ
    • Bass control
    • Mid control
    • Treble control
    • Filters
  • Voice control

Examples

QSC KW153

Controls:

  • Power
  • Gain A
  • Gain B
  • Channel A Input Gain (0 dB / 12 dB / 24 dB / 36 dB)
  • LF Mode (Ext Sub /Norm/DEEP™)
  • HF Mode (Flat/ Vocal Boost) Front LED (On /Off/Limit)

Neumann KH 120 D

  • Controller design: analog, active
  • ACOUSTICAL CONTROLS switches:
    • BASS: 0, -2.5, -5, -7.5 dB
    • LOW-MID: 0, -1.5, -3, -4.5 dB
    • TREBLE: +1, 0, -1, -2 dB

Input gain control (sensitivity): 0 dB to -15 dB

Yamaha HS5

Others:

  • LEVEL control: +4dB/center click
  • EQ: HIGH TRIM switch: +/- 2dB at HF
  • ROOM CONTROL switch: 0/-2/-4 dB under 500Hz

Sonos Move

Voice Control: Integrated voice control.

HEDD Audio Type20

Input gain: -30dB … +6dB

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Indicators

Speaker indicators are typically lights that either flash/flicker or light up to indicate occurrences and states of performance of the speaker.

Indicators are often LEDs that light up to communicate the following:

  • Power
  • Standby
  • Signal
  • Limit
  • Mic/Line
  • Error

Examples

QSC KW153

Indicators:

  • Power
  • Signal A
  • Signal B
  • Standby
  • Limit
  • Mic (24 dB and 36 dB settings)

Neumann KH 120 D

  • DELAY rotary switches E and SIGNAL SELECT rotary switch D setting acknowledgement: Neumann logo “Red” 3 flashes
  • Digital error/Loudspeaker’s protection system is active: Neumann logo “Red” 1 flash

Yamaha HS5

  • Indicator: Power ON (White LED)

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Cooling

Some speaker manufacturers include cooling systems in their speakers to help in heat dissipation. As discussed earlier, this helps to improve the power handling rating and maximum SPL by allowing greater signal levels. to be sent through the voice coil (which causes more heat to be produced).

Example

QSC KW153

  • Cooling: On-demand, 50 mm variable speed fan

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Protection

Speaker burn-out is an awful thing to have happen to your speakers. Therefore, some manufacturers take it upon themselves to include protective components within their speakers.

These components can be electrical or mechanical in nature and all serve to protect the speaker from burn-out due to overheating and over-excursion.

Examples

QSC KW153

  • Amplifier Protection:
    • Thermal limiting
    • Output overcurrent
    • Overtemperature muting
    • GuardRail™
  • Transducer Protection:
    • Thermal limiting
    • Excursion limiting

Neumann KH 120 D

Protection circuitry: Limiter: low, high

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AC Power Input/Supply

This specification only applies to active and powered speakers. It refers mainly to the type of power supply used to convert power from the power mains into power to run the speaker.

This spec will also often tell us the voltage and frequency of the acceptable AC power mains (which differ from country to country).

On top of that, the specification may also include the connector type; fuse type; charge specs (if portable and/or wireless); power consumption, and other details the manufacturer thought important enough to share.

Examples

QSC KW153

AC Power Input: Universal power supply 100 – 240 VAC, 50 – 60 Hz

Denon Professional Commander Sport

Power:

  • Connection: IEC
  • Input Voltage: 100 – 240 VAC, 50/60 Hz
  • Fuse: T2AL 250V
  • Consumption: 80W

Neumann KH 120 D

Power supply: 100 to 240 V~, 50/60 Hz

Cyber Acoustics CA-3602

Power Adapter: Internal, ETL/cETL approved

Sonos Move

Power Supply:

  • Charging base:100-240VAC, ~50/60Hz, 1.2A. Output: 18.0VDC, 2.5A, 45.0W.
  • USB port: USB type C PD power with 45W, 20V/2.25A.

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AC Power Consumption

This specification tells us how much power (in watts) the active or powered speaker will consumer when plugged in and working.

The power consumption specification may also list out the current draw and voltage the speaker requires.

Examples

QSC KW153

AC Power Consumption (1/8 Power):

  • 100 VAC, 2.3 A
  • 120 VAC, 2.01 A
  • 230 VAC, 1.13 A

Neumann KH 120 D

  • Power consumption (idle): 25 W
  • Power consumption (full output AC): 200 W

Yamaha HS5

Power consumption: 45W

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Waterproof

Waterproof specifications are given for outdoor speakers and many portable speakers.

This specification is typically delivered as an IP rating.

The IP code (Ingress Protection code) is a measure and classification of the degree of protection provided by mechanical casings and electrical enclosures against intrusion, dust, accidental contact, and water.

The first digit refers to solid particle protection on a scale from 0 to 6 while the second digit refers to liquid ingress protection on a scale from 0 to 9.

Here is a table describing the first digit (solid particle protection) in an IP rating:

IP Code First Digit
(Solid Particle Protection)
Effective AgainstDescription
X

No data available.
0

No protection against contact and ingress of objects.
1>50mm (2.0")Protection against any large surface.
2>12.5mm (1/2")Protection from finger and similar-sized objects.
3>2.5mm (0.098")Protection from most tools, thick wires, etc.
4>1mm (0.039")Protection from most wires, slender screws, large ants etc.
5Dust protectedIngress of dust is not entirely prevented, but it must not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with the satisfactory operation of the equipment.
6Dust-tightNo ingress of dust; complete protection against contact (dust-tight). A vacuum must be applied. Test duration of up to 8 hours based on airflow.

And here is a table describing the second digit (liquid ingress protection) in an IP rating:

IP Code Second Digit
(Liquid Ingress Protection)
Protection AgainstEffective AgainstDetails
X

No data available.
0No protection.

No protection against liquid ingress.
1Dripping water.Dripping water (vertically falling drops) shall have no harmful effect on the specimen when mounted in an upright position onto a turntable and rotated at 1 RPM.Test duration: 10 minutes.

Water equivalent to 1 mm (0.039 in) rainfall per minute
2Dripping water when tilted at 15°.Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted at an angle of 15° from its normal position. A total of four positions are tested within two axes.Test duration: 2.5 minutes for every direction of tilt (10 minutes total).

Water equivalent to 3 mm (0.12 in) rainfall per minute
3Spraying water.Water falling as a spray at any angle up to 60° from the vertical shall have no harmful effect, utilizing either: a) an oscillating fixture, or b) A spray nozzle with a counterbalanced shield.

Test a) is conducted for 5 minutes, then repeated with the specimen rotated horizontally by 90° for the second 5-minute test. Test b) is conducted (with shield in place) for 5 minutes minimum.
For a spray nozzle:
Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 5 minutes Water volume: 10 litres per minute (0.037 imperial gal/s) Pressure: 50–150 kPa (7.3–21.8 psi).

For an oscillating tube:
Test duration: 10 minutes Water volume: 0.07 litres per minute (0.00026 imperial gal/s) per hole.
4Splashing of water.Water splashing against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect, utilizing either:

a) an oscillating fixture, or b) A spray nozzle with no shield. Test a) is conducted for 10 minutes. b) is conducted (without shield) for 5 minutes minimum.
Oscillating tube: Test duration: 10 minutes, or spray nozzle (same as IPX3 spray nozzle with the shield removed)
5Water jets.Water projected by a nozzle (6.3 mm (0.25 in)) against enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 3 minutes.

Water volume: 12.5 litres per minute Pressure: 30 kPa (4.4 psi) at a distance of 3 meters (9.8 ft)
6Powerful water jets.Water projected in powerful jets (12.5 mm (0.49 in)) against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 3 minutes.

Water volume: 100 liters per minute (0.37 imperial gal/s) Pressure: 100 kPa (15 psi) at distance of 3 meters (9.8 ft).
6KPowerful water jets with increased pressure.Water projected in powerful jets (6.3 mm [0.25 in] nozzle) against the enclosure from any direction, under elevated pressure, shall have no harmful effects. Found in DIN 40050, and not IEC 60529. Test duration: at least 3 minutes.

Water volume: 75 liters per minute (0.27 impgal/s) Pressure: 1,000 kPa (150 psi) at distance of 3 meters (9.8 ft).
7Immersion, up to 1 meter (3 ft 3 in) depth.Ingress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 meter (3 ft 3 in) of submersion).Test duration: 30 minutes.

Tested with the lowest point of the enclosure 1,000 mm (39 in) below the surface of the water, or the highest point 150 mm (5.9 in) below the surface, whichever is deeper.
8Immersion, 1 meter (3 ft 3 in) or more depth.The equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water under conditions which shall be specified by the manufacturer. However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water can enter but only in such a manner that it produces no harmful effects. The test depth and duration is expected to be greater than the requirements for IPx7, and other environmental effects may be added, such as temperature cycling before immersion.Test duration: Agreement with manufacturer.

Depth specified by the manufacturer, generally up to 3 meters (9.8 ft)
9KPowerful high-temperature water jets.Protected against close-range high pressure, high-temperature spray downs.

Smaller specimens rotate slowly on a turntable, from 4 specific angles. Larger specimens are mounted in the intended position when being used, no turntable required, and are tested freehand for at least 3 minutes at a distance of 0.15–0.2 meters (5.9 in–7.9 in).

The specific requirements for the test nozzle are shown in figures 7, 8, & 9 of IEC (or EN) 60529.

This test is identified as IPx9 in IEC 60529.
Test duration: Fixture: 30 sec. in each of 4 angles (2 min. total), Freehand: 1 min/m2, 3 min. minimum.

Water volume: 14–16 litres per minute (0.051–0.059 imperial gal/s) Pressure: 8–10 MPa (80–100 bar) at a distance of 0.10–0.15 meters (3.9 in–5.9 in) Water temperature: 80 °C (176 °F).

Examples

Denon Professional Commander Sport

  • Waterproof: IXP4

Sonos Move

Humidity Resistant: Move meets IP56 water and dust resistance levels. Just don’t leave it out in a soaking rainstorm.

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Temperature

Some of the more involved manufacturers will test the coldest and hottest temperature limits of their speakers and include these limits in their specs sheets.

The temperature specifications refer to the temperature range in which a speaker will perform as it should. There are typically two temperature ranges specified: the operating temperature and the storage temperature.

The operating temperature range states the range in which the speaker will perform properly. Operation outside of this range (either too cold or too hot) will lead to improper performance and even damage.

The storage temperature range is the manufacturer-defined safe range in which the speaker can be stored. Of course, it’s probably unlikely that the speaker will sustain damage if stored outside of this range. Rather, this specification is more so to protect the manufacturer in the case that overly hot or cold storage ends up altering the speaker in any way.

Ensure you let your speaker cool down or warm up to the operational range before using it once taken out of storage!

Examples

Neumann KH 120 D

Temperature:

  • Operation and storage, unpacked: +10 °C to +40 °C (+50 °F to +104 °F)
  • Transport and storage, packed in original packaging: –25 °C to +70 °C (–13 °F to +158 °F)

Sonos Move

  • Operating Temperature: 32º to 113º F (0º to 45º C)
  • Storage Temperature: -13º to 158º F (-25º to 70º C)

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Relative Humidity

Relative humidity is the amount of water vapour present in air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature.

Speakers deal with electricity and humidity will have an effect on the circuitry and overall functionality of the speaker.

In addition to electrical problems, moist air can increase the likelihood of dust and debris settling inside the speaker which will also have an effect on the speaker performance.

So some manufacturers specify a relative humidity limit at which point their speaker may not perform as intended.

Example

Neumann KH 120 D

Relative humidity:

  • Operation and storage, unpacked max: 75 % (non-condensing)
  • Transport and storage, packed in original packaging max: 90 % (non-condensing)

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Thiele-Small Parameters

The Thiele-Small (T/S) Parameters are a series of measurements that define the electro-mechanical properties of a loudspeaker.

These parameters generally apply to individual drivers and the sealed and vented/ported enclosures they are built into.

There are many T/S parameters that we’ll encounter in different specifications sheets. They are:

For a detailed article on the Thiele-Small Parameters, check out my article Full List: Thiele-Small Speaker Parameters W/ Descriptions.


B: Magnet Flux Density In Gap

The B parameter measures the magnetic flux density (magnetic field strength) in the driver’s gap. It is the magnetic field strength that causes the voice coil to oscillate as an AC audio signal passes through it.

Example

B&C 8CX21

Specifications LF Unit:

  • LF Flux Density: 1.1 T

Specifications HF Unit:

  • Flux Density: 1.45 T

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BL: BL Product

The BL Product (aka Force Factor) measures the strength of the speaker motor. Stronger motors are more capable of moving larger diaphragms and, generally speaking, can handle more power.

Examples

B&C 8CX21

  • Bl: 115 Txm

Eminence Delta-10A

  • BL: 14.40 T-M

Dayton Audio RS255-8

BL Product (BL): 9.05 Tm

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Cas: Driver’s Acoustic Compliance

The Cas parameter is essentially the acoustic equivalent of the Mechanical Compliance Of Suspension (Cms).

Cms is the effective compliance (inverse of stiffness) of the air that the speaker pushes across its Surface Area Of Cone (Sd).

No Examples

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Cmes: Electrical Capacitance Including Air-Load

The Cmes parameter is a rare find in TSP sheets. It tells us the electrical capacitance representing the mechanical mass.

In other words, Cmes tells us how well the moving cone of the speaker can hold onto electric charge as a signal is applied to the voice coil.

No Examples

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Cms: Mechanical Compliance Of Suspension

The Cms describes the compliance (inverse of stiffness) of the driver’s suspension which is made of the spider and surround.

Higher compliance means the driver is easier to move but will have an effect on the suspension’s ability to prevent lateral motion; absorb shock, and reduce the resonance of the driver.

Examples

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Cms: 0.18 mm/N

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Mechanical Compliance of Suspension (Cms): 0.88 mm/N

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D: Driver Diameter

The D parameter is the diameter of the diaphragm plus any part of the surround that moves with the diaphragm. It is not the same as the nominal diameter, which generally rounds the diameter up or down to nearest inch or half-inch.

No Examples

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EBP: Efficiency Bandwidth Product

The EPB parameter is a derived value that is used to help designers determine what kind of enclosure would best-suit the driver.

Though there are exceptions, EPB values can generally tell us the following:

  • EPB >100 indicates the driver is well-suited for a ported/vented enclosure.
  • EPB < 50 indicates the driver is well-suited for a sealed enclosure.
  • 50 ≤ EPB ≤ 100 indicates the drive is well-suited for either enclosure type

Examples

B&C 8CX21

  • EBP: 189 Hz

Eminence Delta-10A

  • EBP: 189

Back to the full list of Thiele-Small parameters.


F3: -3 dB Cutoff Frequency Of Enclosure (Low-End)

It represents the frequency on the speaker’s frequency graph where the low-end roll-off passes -3 dB from average. The F3 of a driver is typically just below its resonant frequency (Fs).

No Examples

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Fb: Resonance Frequency Of The Bass Reflex Box

Fb refers to the manufacturer-recommended resonant frequency of a ported/vented or radiated enclosure. It is ultimately up to the speaker unit designer to follow this parameter or not when using/designing a driver in a ported/vented or radiated enclosure.

No Examples

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Fc: Resonance Frequency Of The Closed Box

Fc refers to the manufacturer-recommended resonant frequency of a sealed/closed enclosure. It is ultimately up to the speaker unit designer to follow this parameter or not when using/designing a driver in a sealed/closed enclosure.

No Examples

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Fs: Resonant Frequency

The resonant frequency Fs (sometimes labelled F0) refers to the free-air resonant frequency of the speaker driver. In other words, it’s the frequency at which the driver will move with minimal effort.

Put even differently, it is the point at which the weight of the moving parts of the speaker becomes balanced with the force of the speaker suspension when in motion.

Examples

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Fs: 66 Hz

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Resonant Frequency (Fs): 28.3 Hz

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L: Coil Length

The T/S parameter L tells us the length of the voice coil’s wire.

No Examples

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Lces: Electrical Inductance Including Air-Load

The Lces parameter is a rare find in TSP sheets. It tells us the electrical inductance representing the Mechanical Compliance Of Suspension (Cms).

In other words, Lces tells us how well the suspension of the driver will resist the AC signal is applied to the voice coil as if the suspension was completely conductive.

No Examples

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Le: Voice Coil Inductance

This TSP described the inductance of the voice coil. Inductance is the tendency of an electrical conductor to oppose a change in the electric current flowing through it.

Examples

B&C 8CX21

Parameters:

  • Le: 1.2 mH

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Le: 0.74 mH

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Voice Coil Inductance (Le): 0.86 mH @ 1 kHz

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Ms: Total Mass Of Moving Parts

The total mass of the speaker cone including the full weight of the surround and spider. 

A fairly useless measurement. Mmd and Mms are much more applicable.

No Examples

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Mmd: Diaphragm Mass

This TSP refers to the weight of the cone assembly (the voice coil, former, diaphragm, dust cap, half the surround, and half the spider).

No Examples

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Mms: Diaphragm Mass Including Air-Load

This TSP combines the Mmd mass with the air-load. The air-load (aka driver radiation mass load) is the weight of the air the driver cone must push to act properly as a transducer.

Example

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Diaphragm Mass Inc. Airload (Mms): 35.8g

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η₀: Reference Efficiency

This parameter tells us the power efficiency of the driver as a percentage.

In other words, the η0 parameter tells us what percentage of the electrical power applied to the driver transducer is converted into acoustic power.

Example

B&C 8CX21

Parameters:

  • η₀: 1.5%

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Pa: Acoustic Power

The acoustic power parameter is another mostly-unused parameter. It tells us the acoustic power the speaker will output when 1 watt of electrical power is sent to it.

No Examples

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Pe: Thermal Power Handling

The Thermal Power Handling (Pe) T/S parameter refers to the maximum amount of electrical power a driver can handle before its voice coil assembly begins to melt, burn or otherwise sustain changes and damage.

No Examples

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Qa: Q @ Fb Due To Absorption Losses

The Qa parameter refers to the additional damping of the loudspeaker due to the absorption losses if the manufacturer-recommended ported/vented enclosure with resonant frequency Fb is used.

Q is the inverse of the damping ratio and so lower Q values mean more control.

No Examples

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Qec: Q @ Fc

The Qec parameter refers to the additional damping of the loudspeaker due to the electrical losses if the manufacturer-recommended sealed/closed enclosure with resonant frequency Fc is used.

Q is the inverse of the damping ratio and so lower Q values mean more control.

No Examples

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Qes: Electromagnetic Q

The Qes parameter refers to the electrical damping of the loudspeaker due to the voice coil and magnet motor.

Q is the inverse of the damping ratio and so lower Q values mean more control.

Examples

B&C 8CX21

  • Qes: 0.39

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Qes: 0.35

Dayton Audio RS225-8

  • Electromagnetic Q (Qes): 0.51

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Ql: Q @ Fb Due To Leakage Losses

The Ql parameter refers to the additional damping of the loudspeaker due to the leakage losses if the manufacturer-recommended ported/vented enclosure with resonant frequency Fb is used.

Q is the inverse of the damping ratio and so lower Q values mean more control.

No Examples

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Qmc: Q @ Fc Due To Mechanical Losses

The Qmc parameter refers to the additional damping of the loudspeaker due to the mechanical losses if the manufacturer-recommended sealed/closed enclosure with resonant frequency Fc is used.

Q is the inverse of the damping ratio and so lower Q values mean more control.

No Examples

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Qms: Mechanical Q

The Qms parameter refers to the mechanical damping of the loudspeaker due to the losses in the suspension (spider and surround).

Q is the inverse of the damping ratio and so lower Q values mean more control.

Examples

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

  • Qms: 1.86

B&C 8CX21

  • Qms: 4.1

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Qms: 6.53

Dayton Audio RS225-8

  • Mechanical Q (Qms): 1.46

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Qp: Q @ Fb Due To Port Losses

The Qp parameter refers to the additional damping of the loudspeaker due to the port losses if the manufacturer-recommended ported/vented enclosure with resonant frequency Fb is used.

Q is the inverse of the damping ratio and so lower Q values mean more control.

No Examples

Back to the full list of Thiele-Small parameters.


Qtc: Pneumatic Q

The Qtc parameter refers to the manufacturer-recommended closed/sealed system’s Q at resonance (Fc), due to all losses.

Q is the inverse of the damping ratio and so lower Q values mean more control.

No Examples

Back to the full list of Thiele-Small parameters.


Qts: Total Q

The Qts measurements (Total Quality Factor) is the inverse of the total damping ratio at the driver’s resonant frequency (Fs). It is defined as a combination of the mechanical Q (Qms) and the electrical Q (Qes).

Though there are exceptions, Qts values can generally tell us the following:

  • Qts ≤ 0.4 indicate the driver is well-suited for a ported/vented enclosure.
  • 0.4 < Qts < 0.7 indicate the driver is well-suited for a sealed enclosure.
  • Qts ≥ 0.7 indicate the drive is well-suited for free-air of infinite baffle-type applications.

Examples

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

  • Qts: 1.84

B&C 8CX21

  • Qts: 0.36

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Qts: 0.33

Dayton Audio RS225-8

  • Total Q (Qts): 0.38

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Re: DC Resistance

The Re parameter refers entirely to the DC resistance (DCR) of the voice coil. Resistance is the resistance to direct electrical current in the voice coil.

DCR makes up a baseline in which the impedance (otherwise known as AC resistance) cannot drop below. The American EIA standard RS-299A specifies that Re (or DCR) should be at least 80% of the rated nominal impedance (Znom) of the driver.

It is rarely the case, at any frequency, that the driver will present a purely resistive load to its amplifier.

Examples

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

  • Re: 7.92-Ohm

B&C 8CX21

  • Re: 5.2 Ω

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Re: 5.42 Ω

Dayton Audio RS225-8

DC Resistance (Re): 6.5 ohms

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Ras: Acoustic Losses

The Ras parameter is the acoustic resistance of the speaker, taking into account the acoustic losses around the driver.

It can be thought of as the acoustic equivalent of the Mechanical Resistance (Rms).

No Examples

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Res: Electrical Losses

The Res parameter is the electrical resistance of the speaker, taking into account the electrical losses in the driver.

It can be thought of as the electrical equivalent of the Mechanical Resistance (Rms).

No Examples

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Rms: Mechanical Losses

The Rms parameter is somewhat rare on TSP sheets. It refers to the mechanical resistance of the speaker, taking into account the driver’s suspension losses (damping). It acts as a measurement to the absorption qualities of the speaker suspension.

No Examples

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Rg: Amplifier Source Resistance

The Rg parameter is incredibly rare because most drivers are standalone devices and are not combined with a specific amplifier.

However, in the case a driver is connected to a specific amp, the Rg parameter describes the source resistance (including leads, crossovers, etc.) of the amplifier.

No Examples

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Sd: Surface Area Of Cone

The Sd parameter measures the effective projected area of the cone. In other words, the area of the cone that moves in order to produce sound.

Examples

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

  • Sd: 3.8 cm2

B&C 8CX21

  • Sd: 220.0 cm2 (34.1 in2)

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Sd: 344.9 cm2

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Surface Area Of Cone (Sd): 213.8 cm2

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SPLo: SPL From 1 Watt At 1 Meter

The SPLo parameter is the same as the sensitivity rating of a speaker.

Back to the full list of Thiele-Small parameters.


Vas: Compliance Equivalent Volume

The Vas TSP measures the volume of air that has the same “stiffness” (inverse of compliance) as the driver’s suspension (Cms) when acted on by a piston of the same Surface Area Of Cone (Sd) as the driver.

Examples

B&C 8CX21

  • Vas: 15.0 dm3 (0.55 ft3)

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Vas: 1.08 cu.ft., 30.50 liters

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Compliance Equivalent Volume (Vas): 56.8 litres

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Vb: Volume Of Bass Reflex Box

Vb refers to the manufacturer-recommended volume of a ported/vented or radiated enclosure. It is ultimately up to the speaker unit designer to follow this parameter or not when using/designing a driver in a ported/vented or radiated enclosure.

No Examples

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Vc: Volume Of Closed Box

Vc refers to the manufacturer-recommended volume of a sealed/closed enclosure. It is ultimately up to the speaker unit designer to follow this parameter or not when using/designing a driver in a sealed/closed enclosure.

No Examples

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Vd: Volume Of Displacement

The Vd Thiele-Small parameter tells us the maximum volume of air a speaker is capable of displacing while maintaining linear movement. 

Vd values give us some indication as to how loud a speaker can get at low frequencies. The greater the volume of displaced air, the louder the bass.

Examples

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Vd: 121.0 cc

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Volume Of Displacement (Vd): 149.7 cm3

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Xlim: Maximum Excursion Limitation

The Xlim parameter is specific to Eminence speakers. The Eminence Delta-10A is listed in the examples below.

Xlim is expressed by Eminence as the lowest of four potential failure condition measurements:

  1. Spider crashing on top plate.
  2. Voice coil bottoming on back plate.
  3. Voice coil coming out of gap above core
  4. The physical limitation of cone.

Example

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Xlim: 9.4 mm

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Xmax: Maximum Linear Excursion

The Xmax T/S parameter is the maximum distance a speaker can travel linearly without distorting the sound.

Examples

B&C 8CX21

  • Xmax: 5.0mm

Eminence Delta-10A

  • Xmax: 3.50 mm

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Maximum Linear Excursion (Xmax): 7.0 mm

Back to the full list of Thiele-Small parameters.


Xmech: Maximum Physical Excursion

The Xmech T/S parameter is the maximum distance a speaker can travel without damaging the driver. 

No Examples

Back to the full list of Thiele-Small parameters.


Xvar: Usable Excursion/Variation

The Xvar parameter is specific to B&C speakers. The B&C 8CX21 is listed in the examples below.

Xvar represents the excursion limit (beyond the Maximum Linear Excursion (Xmax)) in which the magnetic field seen by the voice coil (B); the total suspension compliance (Cms), or both, drops below 50% or their stated small-signal values.

Example

B&C 8CX21

  • Xvar: 5.5mm

Back to the full list of Thiele-Small parameters.


Zmax: Impedance At Resonance

The impedance of a speaker is frequency-dependent and a spike in impedance happens at the resonant frequency (Fs) of the speaker.

No Examples

Back to the full list of Thiele-Small parameters.

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Taps

Multi-speaker distributed speaker systems are designed to be easily installed by simply adding the wattage tap ratings of each speaker and ensuring the sum of the taps does not exceed the limits of the power amplifier. 

These systems work by sending high-voltage signals from the amplifier and equipping each speaker with a step-down transformer that will bring down the voltage to speaker level.

So then, speakers designed for distributed systems have power taps. These power taps change the way in which the transformer acts.

Oftentimes the transformer taps will have various wattage switches (to allow varying amounts of power) and ohm switched (to match varying impedances).

A power tap, once set, indicates the maximum power the speaker can receive (and limits the power draw the speaker takes from the amplifier).

The taps can also be rated in volts that coincide with the names of the distributed system (notably 25V, 70V and 100V distributed systems).

Example

JBL CSS8008

  • 100V Taps: 5W, 2.5W, 1.3W
  • 70V Taps: 5W, 2.5W, 1.3W, 0.7W
  • 25V Taps: 5W, 2.5W, 1.3W, 0.7W

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Transformer Insertion Loss

Transformer insertion loss refers to the lost signal power cause by losses due to inefficiencies in the transformer.

Example

JBL CSS8008

  • Transformer Insertion Loss: 1.5 dB Maximum

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Transformer Connection

This spec refers to how we would connect the transformer (and, thus, the speaker) to the main signal wire of the distributed system.

Example

JBL CSS8008

  • Transformer Connection: Bare wire

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Matching Backcan

Backcans (also known as back boxes) are devices used to capture and redirect the sound waves emanating from in-ceiling/in-wall speakers.

The volume of the backcan (which acts as a sort of enclosure) will play a role on the overall sound of the speaker.

Note that space limitations behind the mounting surface may only allow for a smaller backcan.

Not all installed speakers will work with all backcans. This spec simply lists out compatible options.

Example

JBL CSS8008

  • Matching CSS Backcan: CSS-BB8 (0.15 cu ft)
  • Other Compatible Backcans:
    • MTC-81BB8 (0.26 cu ft)
    • MTC-200BB6 (0.5 cu ft)
    • MTC-300BB8 (1.0 cu ft)

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Cable Lengths

Some speakers (particuarly mutli-speaker systems for computers) require wiring between the main powered speaker and the satellite speaker (among other connections).

If the speaker(s) come with their own cables, a cable length specification is often included on the data sheet.

Example

Cyber Acoustics CA-3602

Approximate Length:

  • Power Cable: 5 ft.
  • Speaker to Speaker Cable: Separates up to 11 ft.
  • Speaker to Subwoofer Cable: 6 ft.
  • Input Cable: 6 ft. From Control Pod
  • Control Pod Cable: 6 ft. 

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Bluetooth Specifications

There are plenty of wireless Bluetooth speakers on the market today.

Though it’s seemingly simple to setup (pair) Bluetooth devices, there is actually a lot of technical detail that goes into defining exactly how the Bluetooth speaker receives information.

Therefore, many Bluetooth speakers have a dedicated section within their specifications that shows the details about the Bluetooth connectivity of the speaker.

The Bluetooth specifications include:


Bluetooth Version

The Bluetooth protocol is constantly being improved upon with periodic releases of the newest version.

Each new version builds up the previous, adding extra functionality and increased efficiency while always remaining backward compatible.

Two Bluetooth devices with different versions can be paired with the functionality limited to that of the earlier version.


Bluetooth Profiles

Bluetooth profiles determine the kind of data that is exchanged using Bluetooth technology.

In order for two Bluetooth devices to be compatible, they must support the same profiles.

Each profile has its own lists of codecs that it uses to exchange information.


Bluetooth Modulation

Bluetooth transmits digital information (modulating signals) via radio frequencies (carrier signals).

There are many different types of digital modulation available for use. This spec tells use which modulation(s) are used in transmitting audio to the speaker.


Bluetooth Range

The Bluetooth range specification refers to the maximum distance between the speaker and its paired device. Exceeding this range will lead to improper transmission between devices.


Bluetooth Frequency Range

The Bluetooth protocol transmits digital data on radio waves in the range of 2.402 – 2.480 GHz. This is the standard that is sometimes stated for clarity on Bluetooth speaker specifications sheets.


Bluetooth Transmission Power

This specification refers to amount of power in the Bluetooth transmission.

Examples

Denon Professional Commander Sport

Bluetooth Specifications:

  • Version: 4.0
  • Profiles: A2DP, AVRCP
  • Range: Up to 60-feet (20m)*
  • Maximum Transmission Power: +4 dBm
  • Frequency: 2.4 – 2.48 GHz

JBL Charge 4

  • Bluetooth® version: 4.2
  • Bluetooth® transmitter power: 0-20dBm
  • Bluetooth® transmitter frequency range: 2.402 – 2.480GHz
  • Bluetooth® transmitter modulation: GFSK, π/4 DQPSK, 8DPSK

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Battery

Portable speakers are typically powered by batteries. These batteries are described within the speaker specifications sheet.

Rather than getting into detail about each detail, let’s quickly run though the typical battery specifications:

  • Type: the type of battery along with its voltage and Amp-hours ratings.
  • Life/playtime: how long the battery will last from full charge under normal conditions.
  • Charge time: the amount of time it takes the battery to charge from 0% to 100%.
  • Charge port: the type of connection used to charge the speaker.
  • USB charge out: if the battery can be used to charge other devices (with voltage/current ratings).
  • Replacement/disposal: information on how to replace and/or dispose of the battery.

Examples

Denon Professional Commander Sport

Battery:

  • Battery: 12V 7Ah
  • Battery Life: up to 40 hours
  • Battery Recharge Time: 8 hours

JBL Charge 4

  • Battery type: Lithium-ion Polymer 27Wh (Equivalent to 3.6V, 7500mAh)
  • Battery charge time: 4 hours (5V/2.3A)
  • Music playtime: up to 20 hours (varies by volume level and audio content)
  • USB charge out: 5V/2A (maximum)

Sonos Move

Battery pack:

  • Capacity: 2420-2500maH
  • Replacement: Visit our website www.sonos.com for more information.
  • Disposal: Check with your local waste or recycling company to determine the proper disposal method in your area.

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Microphone

Some speakers will be designed with microphones. This is generally the case with smart devices (which incorporate speakers and microphones) and is sometimes the case with consumer-grade portable PA speakers.

This specification can pack a lot of information including:

  • Number of microphones
  • Microphone array type
  • Microphone type
  • Powering method
  • Wireless operating frequency range
  • Wireless channels available in the speaker
  • Microphone indicators
  • Other microphone specifications

To learn more about microphone specifications, I have an analogous article on mic specs titled Full List Of Microphone Specifications (How To Read A Spec Sheet) and a shorter more in-depth article titled Top 5 Microphone Specifications You Need To Understand.

Examples

Denon Professional Commander Sport

Wireless Microphone:

  • Power: 2 x AA alkaline batteries
  • Operating Frequency: UHF 584 – 608 MHz
  • Available Channels: 16

Sonos Move

Microphones:

  • Far-field microphone array.
  • Microphone LED, hard-wired to the voice microphones for extra privacy control so you’re always aware when the microphone is active.

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Voice Control

Smart speakers (or smart devices with speakers, I should say) are often voice activated. The voice control specification will tells if or if not the “smart speaker” has voice control (they nearly all do) and may give additional details.

Example

Sonos Move

Voice Control: Integrated voice control.

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Smart Specifications

If the speaker happens to be part of a smart device, then there may be any of the following specifications included in the data sheet:

  • Virtual assistant support: which of the virtual assistants (Apple Siri, Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, etc.) the smart device supports.
  • OS compatibility: which operating system the smart device can be paired with.
  • Processor: the computer processor used and its specs
  • RAM: amount of random access memory
  • Storage capacity: the amount of storage space in the smart device.

No Examples

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Wireless Connectivity

The wireless connectivity specification applies to wireless speakers and the way in which they connect to audio sources wirelessle.

This specification often encompasses the aforementioned Bluetooth specifications/standard listed above.

However, it will also tell us if the speaker connects wirelessly via non-Bluetooth standards (WiFi or RF) and will also include any other wireless features of the speaker (including microphones).

Note that the exact term “wireless connectivity” isn’t always used. Therefore, we must our own judgment to figure out if a specification is referring to wireless connectivity or not.

Examples

Denon Professional Commander Sport

  • Wireless Microphone:
    • Power: 2 x AA alkaline batteries
    • Operating Frequency: UHF 584 – 608 MHz
    • Available Channels: 16
  • Bluetooth Specifications:
    • Version: 4.0
    • Profiles: A2DP, AVRCP
    • Range: Up to 60-feet (20m)*
    • Maximum Transmission Power: +4 dBm
    • Frequency: 2.4 – 2.48 GHz

Sonos Move

Wireless Connectivity: Connects to your home WiFi network with any router that supports 802.11b/g/n in 2.4GHz or 802.11a/n in 5GHz.

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Channel Configuration

Channel configuration only applies to a multi-speaker system. This is often the case when buying computer speakers or home theatre/entertainment systems.

In pro markets, speakers are generally sold individually. In consumer markets, it’s common to find speaker systems with channel configurations.

There are several channel configurations. Let’s define a few:

  • 2.0 normal stereo: Includes a left and right channel with a “left” and “right” speaker.
  • 2.1 normal stereo + subwoofer: Includes a normal left-channel speaker and right-channel speaker with the addition of a (center) subwoofer.
  • 5.1 surround sound: Has a stereo pair; a center speaker; a rear-left and rear-right plus a subwoofer.

Example

Cyber Acoustics CA-3602

The Cyber Acoustics CA-3602 computer speakers have a 2:1 channel configuration.

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Built From

The “built from” spec simply states the year (and perhaps a more specific time within the year) in which the speaker in question was introduced to the marketplace.

Example

Klipsch Reference R-100SW

Built From: 2018

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List Price

The list price (aka manufacturer’s suggested retail price or MSRP) is the price at which the speaker manufacturer recommends that retailers sell the speaker.

Examples

Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8

List Price: $39.99

Dayton Audio RS225-8

List Price: $74.99

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Certifications

Certifications are handed out by safety, standards and other regulatory organizations/committees.

Manufacturers may include certificates given to their speaker in the specs sheet to further prove the performance of their speaker and the accuracy of the information contained within the specs sheet.

No Examples

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Safety Agency

Safety agency specifications and certifications are issued by safety, standards and other regulatory organizations/committees.

Including this information in a specifications sheet helps the manufacturer to prove the safety and performance of their speaker by referencing specific standards of testing.

Example

JBL CSS8008

Safety Agency: Suitable for use in air handling spaces per UL1480, UL2043, NFPA 90 & NFPA 70, when installed with corresponding UL Listed backcan, below. S7232/UL Listed, Signaling Speaker. Transformer UL registered per UL1876. In accordance with IEC60849/EN60849.

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Warranty

A warranty is a written guarantee, issued to the purchaser of an article by its manufacturer, promising to repair or replace it if necessary within a specified period of time.

The warranty specification may let the buyer know a few key details about the warranty offered by the manufacturer:

  • How long the manufacturer’s warranty will apply to one of their newly-purchased speakers
  • If the warranty will be voided if the speaker is bought secondhand
  • What the warranty will cover and will not cover
  • Other limitations of the warranty
  • If there are any necessary steps to obtain the warranty (product registry, for example)

Example

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Warranty – Parts & Labor: 5 Years

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Included Accessories

The included accessories “specification” lists out the other pieces that will come with a brand new purchase of the speaker.

Listed accessories often include:

  • Manuals & Guides
  • Mounting equipment
  • Chargers
  • Power adapters
  • Stands

Note that buying secondhand equipment does not ensure all the included accessories will actually be included!

Examples

JBL CSS8008

Included Accessories: 4 pcs M4 x 40 mm sheet metal screws for attaching speaker/driver/transformer assembly to corresponding backcan.

Sonos Move

Package Contents: Sonos Move, charging base, and Quickstart guide.

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Optional/Available Accessories

Manufacturers may also include a list of their accessories that would suit the speaker well but are not included in a brand new purchase of the speaker.

These accessories often include:

  • Covers & Cases
  • Stands
  • Mounting Accessories

Examples

QSC KW153

Available Accessories:

  • KW153 COVER
  • M10 KIT-W

Neumann KH 120 D

Optional accessories:

  • BKH 120: Soft carry bag for 1 pair of KH 120
  • FKH 120: Flight case for 1 pair of KH 120
  • LH 28: Tripod stand adapter
  • LH 29: TV spigot (lighting stand adapter)
  • LH 32: Wall L-bracket
  • LH 43: Surface mounting plate
  • LH 45: Wall bracket
  • LH 46: Adjustable ceiling drop adapter
  • LH 47: Mounting adapter plate
  • LH 48: Tripod adapter plate
  • LH 61: Adjustable L-bracket
  • LH 64: Omnimount/VESA adapter
  • LH 65: Table stand

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Speaker Examples For This Article

Examples are always good. As discussed, there are plenty of speaker types with plenty of speaker specifications.

In writing this article, I have gone through many different specifications sheets to find out the specs that manufacturers include in their speakers.

The specifications defined in this article can be found in the spec sheets of the following speaker types and, more specifically, in the example speakers I’ll share.


Passive 2-Way PA Speaker

The Electro-Voice ZLX-15 (link to compare prices on Amazon and select retailers) is a 2-way 1000W passive PA speaker with a 15″ woofer.

Note that Electro-Voice also produces a powered version of the ZLX-15 (the ZLX-15P) and a Bluetooth capable version (the ZLX-15BT).

Electro-Voice ZLX-15

Electro-Voice ZLX-15 Specification Sheet

  • Features:
    • 15-inch woofer for extended low-frequency response and 1.5-inch high-frequency titanium compression driver.
    • Durable composite construction with innovative hi/lo grip design for easy pole mounting.
    • Exclusive split-baffle design for superior driver time alignment.
  • Model: ZLX-15
  • Frequency Response: 56 Hz – 18 kHz
  • Frequency Range: 44 Hz – 20 kHz
  • Axial Sensitivity: 96 dB
  • Maximum SPL: 126 dB
  • Recommended HP Frequency: 40 Hz
  • Coverage (Horizontal x Vertical): 90° x 60°
  • Power Handling:
    • 250 Watts Continuous
    • 1000 Watts Peak
  • LF Transducer: EVS-15L, 380 mm (15 in) Woofer
  • HF Transducer: DH-1K
  • Crossover Frequency: 1.7 kHz
  • Nominal Impedance: 8 Ω
  • Minimum Impedance: 7 Ω
  • Connectors: Dual NL4
  • Enclosure: Polypropylene
  • Grille: 18 Gauge Steel with Black Powder Coat
  • Dimensions:
    • H: 685 mm (27 in
    • W: 423 mm (17 in)
    • D: 383 mm (15 in)
  • Net Weight: 16.6 kg (36.5 lbs)
  • Shipping Weight: 22.0 kg (48.3 lbs)

Electro-Voice is featured in the following My New Microphone articles:
Top 11 Best Subwoofer Brands (Car, PA, Home & Studio)
Top 11 Best PA Loudspeaker Brands You Should Know And Use

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Powered 2-Way PA Speaker

The Electro-Voice ZLX-12P (link to compare prices on Amazon and select retailers) is a 2-way 100W powered PA Speaker with a 12″ woofer.

Electro-Voice ZLX-12P

Electro-Voice ZLX-12P Specifications Sheet

  • Features:
    • LCD display and 1-knob DSP control with presets for precise and speedy setup.
    • Input level meters and independent amplifier control to ensure optimal gain structure.
    • Front LED for “power on” and “limit” indication.
    • Patented split-baffle design for superior driver time alignment.
    • Durable composite construction with innovative hi/lo grip design for easy pole mounting.
  • Model: ZLX-12P
  • Frequency Response: 65 Hz – 18 kHz
  • Frequency Range: 50 Hz – 20 kHz
  • Maximum SPL: 126 dB
  • Coverage (Horizontal x Vertical): 90° x 60°
  • Power Rating: 1000 Watts
  • LF Transducer: EVS-12K, 300 mm (12 in) Woofer
  • HF Transducer: DH-1K
  • Connectors:
    • (2) XLR/TRS Combo Jack
    • (1) 3.5 mm Input
    • (1) XLR link Output
  • Enclosure: Polypropylene
  • Grille: 18 Gauge Steel with Black Powder Coat
  • Dimensions:
    • H: 610 mm (24 in)
    • W: 356 mm (14 in)
    • D: 356 mm (14 in)
  • Net Weight: 15.6 kg (34.3 lbs)
  • Shipping Weight: 19.0 kg (41.8 lbs)

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Active 3-Way PA Speaker

The QSC KW153 (link to compare prices on Amazon and select retailers) is a 3-way active PA speaker with a 15″ woofer.

QSC KW153

QSC KW153 Manual (Specifications)

  • Features:
    • Birch plywood enclosure
    • Steel grille
    • Front LED
    • Cast aluminum handles (2)
    • 1000 W Class D power module
    • M10 rigging points (11)
    • 35 mm pole socket
    • Slip-resistant feet
  • Configuration: 15″ 3-way trapezoidal loudspeaker
  • Transducers:
    • Low-frequency: 15″ cone transducer
    • Mid-frequency: 6.5″ mid range cone transducer
    • High-frequency: 1.75″ diaphragm compression driver
  • Frequency Response (-6 dB): 35 Hz – 18 kHz
  • Frequency Range (-10 dB): 33 Hz – 20 kHz
  • Nominal Coverage (-6 dB): 75° axisymmetric
  • Maximum SPL (1 meter): 134 dB peak
  • Amplifiers Power Output: 1000 W Class D (500 W LF, 500 W MF/HF) continuous
  • Input Impedance (Ω):
    • Channel A XLR /¼”:
      • Mic gain setting:
        • 0 dB: 38 kΩ (Balanced) 19 kΩ (Unbalanced)
        • +12 dB: 10 kΩ (Balanced) 5 kΩ (Unbalanced)
        • +24 dB: 2.66 kΩ (Balanced) 1.33 kΩ (Unbalanced)
        • +36 dB: 660 Ω (Balanced) 330 Ω (Unbalanced)
    • Channel B XLR /¼”: 38 kΩ balanced / 19 kΩ unbalanced
    • Channel B RCA: 10 kΩ
  • Controls:
    • Power
    • Gain A
    • Gain B
    • Channel A Input Gain (0 dB / 12 dB / 24 dB / 36 dB) •
    • LF Mode (Ext Sub /Norm/DEEP™)
    • HF Mode (Flat/ Vocal Boost) Front LED (On /Off/Limit)
  • Indicators
    • Power
    • Signal A
    • Signal B
    • Standby
    • Limit
    • Mic (24 dB and 36 dB settings)
  • Connectors:
    • Balanced female XLR /¼” line/mic level input
    • Balanced female XLR /¼” line level input
    • Dual Balanced male XLR full range line level out
    • Balanced male XLR “mix” out
    • Stereo RCA line level input
    • Remote gain control
    • Locking IEC power connector
  • Cooling: On-demand, 50 mm variable speed fan
  • Amplifier Protection:
    • Thermal limiting
    • Output overcurrent
    • Overtemperature muting
    • GuardRail™
  • Transducer Protection:
    • Thermal limiting
    • Excursion limiting
  • AC Power Input: Universal power supply 100 – 240 VAC, 50 – 60 Hz
  • AC Power Consumption (1/8 Power):
    • 100 VAC, 2.3 A
    • 120 VAC, 2.01 A
    • 230 VAC, 1.13 A
  • Enclosure: 15 mm painted birch plywood
  • Finish: Black textured paint
  • Grille: Black powder coated 16 gauge steel
  • Dimensions:
    • H: 43.1″ (1094 mm)
    • W: 18.5″ (470 mm)
    • D: 16.8″ (427 mm)
  • Weight (Net): 87 lb (39.5 kg)
  • Available Accessories:
    • KW153 COVER
    • M10 KIT-W

QSC is featured in the following My New Microphone articles:
Top 11 Best Subwoofer Brands (Car, PA, Home & Studio)
Top 11 Best PA Loudspeaker Brands You Should Know And Use
Top 10 Best Loudspeaker Brands (Overall) On The Market Today

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Portable PA Speaker

The Denon Professional Commander Sport (link to compare prices on Amazon and select retailers) is an all-in-one portable PA speaker complete with wireless microphones.

Denon Professional Commander Sport

Denon Professional Commander Sport Specifications


  • Key Features:
    • Two-way design / 8-inch woofer & 1-inch tweeter
    • IPX4 water-resistant rating – sealed box design
    • Tempo control
    • Battery or AC-powered
    • Handheld wireless microphone transmitter included
    • Bluetooth 4.0 playback
    • SD/USB media playback
    • XLR combo Mic/Line input
    • 3.5mm TRS AUX input
  • Speakers:
    • Tweeter: 3″ (80mm)
    • Woofer: 8″ (203mm)
  • Power: 120W continuous
  • Frequency Response: 20 – 20 kHz
  • Waterproof: IXP4
  • Connectors:
    • (1) XLR/1/4″ TRS combo jack
    • (1) 1/4″ (6.35mm) output
    • (1) 1/8″ (3.5mm) input
    • (2) USB ports
    • (1) IEC AC power input
  • Wireless Microphone:
    • Power: 2 x AA alkaline batteries
    • Operating Frequency: UHF 584 – 608 MHz
    • Available Channels: 16
  • Bluetooth Specifications:
    • Version: 4.0
    • Profiles: A2DP, AVRCP
    • Range: Up to 60-feet (20m)*
    • Maximum Transmission Power: +4 dBm
    • Frequency: 2.4 – 2.48 GHz
  • Power:
    • Connection: IEC
    • Input Voltage: 100 – 240 VAC, 50/60 Hz
    • Fuse: T2AL 250V
    • Consumption: 80W
  • Battery:
    • Battery: 12V 7Ah
    • Battery Life: up to 40 hours
    • Battery Recharge Time: 8 hours
  • Dimensions:
    • W: 17.7″ (449mm)
    • D: 8.9″ (228mm)
    • H: 20.1″ (510mm)
  • Weight: 25.8 lbs (11.7 kg)

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Digital Studio Monitor

The Neumann KH 120 D (link to compare prices at select retailers) is a 2-way digital studio monitor with a 5 1/4″ woofer and 1″ tweeter.

Neumann KH 120 D

Link to find the Neumann KH 120 D Manual (Specifications) at Neumann.com

Features:

  • Compact bi-amplified studio monitor with a high efficiency
  • Exceptional bass depth and transient response from 52 to 21k Hz
  • Precise dispersion, optimized for near-field applications
  • Digital Input and delay (max. 400 ms)
  • As a stereo system with KH 750 DSP and iPad® app, controllable and alignable to the room*

Acoustics:

  • -3 dB free-field frequency response: 52 Hz to 21 kHz, ±3 dB
  • Passband free-field frequency response: 54 Hz to 20 kHz, ±2 dB
  • Self-generated noise (with input gain set to 100 dB for 0 dBu): <20 dB(A) at 10 cm
  • Total harmonic distortion < 0.5 % at 95 dB SPL at 1 m: >100 Hz
  • Max. SPL in full space / calc. in half-space at 3 % THD at 1 m, averaged between 100 Hz and 6 kHz: 105.1 dB SPL / 111.1 dB SPL
  • Bass capability (Max. SPL in half-space with 3 % THD at 1 m, averaged between 50 Hz and 100 Hz): 104.8 dB SPL
  • Max. short term SPL with IEC-weighted noise (IEC 60268-5) at 1 m, in typical listening conditions: 107 dB(C) SPL
  • Max. short term SPL with music material at 2.3 m, in typical listening conditions (pair):
    • 97 dB(C) SPL (full range)
    • 104 dB(C) SPL (with subwoofer)
  • Max. long term SPL with pink noise at 2.3 m, in typical listening conditions (single/pair):
    • 88/93 dB(C) SPL (full range)
    • 89/94 dB(C) SPL (with subwoofer)

Electronics:

  • Woofer amplifier, continuous (peak) output power: 50 W (80 W), THD and noise < 0.1 % with deactivated limiter
  • Tweeter amplifier, continuous (peak) output power: 50 W (80 W), THD and noise < 0.1 % with deactivated limiter
  • Controller design: analog, active
  • Crossover frequency; crossover slope: 2.0 kHz; 24 dB/oct., 4th order
  • ACOUSTICAL CONTROLS switches:
    • BASS: 0, -2.5, -5, -7.5 dB
    • LOW-MID: 0, -1.5, -3, -4.5 dB
    • TREBLE: +1, 0, -1, -2 dB
  • Protection circuitry: Limiter: low, high
  • Infrasonic filter frequency; slope: 30 Hz; 6 dB/oct.

Analog input:

  • Input type: XLR, electronically balanced
  • Input Impedance (depending on the position of the OUTPUT LEVEL switch 8):
    • 114 dB SPL – 20 kΩ
    • 108 dB SPL – 10 kΩ
    • 100 dB SPL – 20 kΩ
    • 94 dB SPL – 10 kΩ
  • Input gain control (sensitivity): 0 dB to -15 dB
  • OUTPUT LEVEL switch: 94, 100, 108, 114 dB SPL
  • CMRR:
    • > 56 dB, 100 Hz to 10 kHz (ANALOG mode)
    • > 56 dB, 100 Hz to 12 kHz (ANALOG DELAYED mode)
  • Maximum input level:
    • 24 dBu (ANALOG mode)
    • 18 dBu (ANALOG DELAYED mode)

Digital input/output:

  • Signal format BNC: AES3, S/P-DIF
  • Impedance BNC, unbalanced: 75 Ω (input and output)
  • Input switching: Analog/Digital A/Digital B/Digital A+B
  • Digital converter: resolution
    • 16 … 24-bit
  • Digital converter: sampling rates [kHz]*
    • 22.05, 24, 32, 44.1, 48, 64, 88.2, 96, 176.4, 192
  • Digital sensitivity: -18 dBFS = 100 dB SPL at 1 m
  • Dynamic range: A-D-A, D-A: > 116 dB(A), 123 dB(A)
  • THD+N:
    • analog delayed: < -104 dB
    • digital: < -106 dB
  • Maximum delay (time / distance): 409.5 ms / 140.87 m (462′ 2″)
  • Maximum delay audio-video synchronization (lip sync):
    • 10.2 at 40 ms/frame
    • 12.3 at 33 ms/frame
  • Minimum delay resolution (time / distance): 0.1 ms / 3.44 cm (1 3/8″)
  • Latency D-A (with delay = 0 ms) **
    • 1.84 ms at 22.05 kHz
    • 1.70 ms at 24 kHz
    • 1.28 ms at 32 kHz
    • 0.93 ms at 44.1 kHz
    • 0.86 ms at 48 kHz
    • 0.64 ms at 64 kHz
    • 0.47 ms at 88.2 kHz
    • 0.43 ms at 96 kHz
    • 0.24 ms at 176.4 kHz
    • 0.22 ms at 192 kHz
  • Latency A-D-A (with delay = 0 ms): 0.54 ms
  • DELAY rotary switches E and SIGNAL SELECT rotary switch D setting acknowledgement: Neumann logo “Red” 3 flashes
  • Digital error/Loudspeaker’s protection system is active: Neumann logo “Red” 1 flash

Product properties:

  • Power supply: 100 to 240 V~, 50/60 Hz
  • Power consumption (idle): 25 W
  • Power consumption (full output AC): 200 W
  • Dimensions (H x W x D): 277 x 182 x 220 mm (107 /8″ x 71 /8″ x 85 /8″)
  • Internal net volume/external volume: 6.5 l/9.7 l
  • Weight: 6.5 kg (14 lbs 5 oz)
  • Drivers – woofer, tweeter magnetically shielded: 130 mm (5.25″), 25 mm (1″)
  • Threaded inserts for Neumann mounting hardware: 2 x M8 on rear panel with depth 15 mm (5 /8″)
  • Cabinet surface finish, Color:
    • painted aluminium
    • Anthracite (RAL 7021) or
    • White (9016) or
    • other RAL color

Temperature:

  • Operation and storage, unpacked: +10 °C to +40 °C (+50 °F to +104 °F)
  • Transport and storage, packed in original packaging: –25 °C to +70 °C (–13 °F to +158 °F)

Relative humidity:

  • Operation and storage, unpacked max: 75 % (non-condensing)
  • Transport and storage, packed in original packaging max: 90 % (non-condensing)

Delivery includes:

  • KH 120 D
  • 4 Self-adhesive feet
  • 1 Quick guide
  • 1 Safety guide

Optional accessories:

  • BKH 120: Soft carry bag for 1 pair of KH 120
  • FKH 120: Flight case for 1 pair of KH 120
  • LH 28: Tripod stand adapter
  • LH 29: TV spigot (lighting stand adapter)
  • LH 32: Wall L-bracket
  • LH 43: Surface mounting plate
  • LH 45: Wall bracket
  • LH 46: Adjustable ceiling drop adapter
  • LH 47: Mounting adapter plate
  • LH 48: Tripod adapter plate
  • LH 61: Adjustable L-bracket
  • LH 64: Omnimount/VESA adapter
  • LH 65: Table stand

Neumann is featured in My New Microphone’s Top 11 Best Studio Monitor Brands You Should Know And Use.

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Analog Studio Monitor

The Yamaha HS5 (link to compare price on Amazon and select retailers) is a 2-way analog studio monitor with a 5″ woofer and 1″ tweeter.

Yamaha HS5

Yamaha HS5 Specifications

Yamaha HS Series Manual

  • Features:
    • Accurate, detailed reproduction of the source.
    • Simple 2-way design in the full-range models, with optimally matched high and low-frequency units.
    • Response-tailoring controls match speaker output to a wide range of acoustic spaces.
    • In addition to studio standard XLR connectors, phone jacks allow direct connection of electronic musical instruments and other sources.
  • Speaker type: 2-way bi-amp powered studio monitor
  • Overall Frequency Response:
    • –3 dB: 74 Hz – 24 kHz
    • –10 dB: 54Hz – 30kHz
  • Components:
    • LF: 5″ cone
    • HF: 1″ dome
  • Crossover: 2 kHz
  • Output power:
    • Total: 70W (dynamic power)
    • LF: 45W (4 ohms)
    • HF: 25W (8 ohms)
  • Input sensitivity / Impedance: -10 dBu / 10k ohms
  • I/O connectors:
    • XLR3-31 type (balanced)
    • PHONE (balanced)
  • Power consumption: 45W
  • Shape: Bass-reflex type
  • Cabinet material: MDF
  • Dimensions:
    • W: 170mm (6.7″)
    • H: 285mm (11.2″)
    • D: 222mm (8.7″)
  • Net weight: 5.3kg (11.7 lbs.)
  • Others:
    • LEVEL control: +4dB/center click
    • EQ: HIGH TRIM switch: +/- 2dB at HF
    • ROOM CONTROL switch: 0/-2/-4 dB under 500Hz
  • Indicator: Power ON (White LED)

Yamaha is featured in the following My New Microphone articles:
Top 11 Best Studio Monitor Brands You Should Know And Use
Top 11 Best Subwoofer Brands (Car, PA, Home & Studio)
Top 11 Best PA Loudspeaker Brands You Should Know And Use

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Installed Speaker

The JBL CSS8008 8″ Multi-Tap Ceiling Speaker (link to compare prices on Amazon and select retailers) is an 8″ speaker designed for distributed speaker systems.

JBL CSS8008 8″

check out links to download the JBL CSS8008 Specifications.

  • Features:
    • High 96 dB sensitivity
    • 5 Watt multi-tap transformer for 100V, 70V and 25V distributed lines
    • 120° conical coverage
    • Fits CSS-BB8 backcan
  • Driver Size (dual-cone): 200 mm (8 in)
  • Driver Sensitivity (mid-range) (1W [2.83V], 1m, 2k – 6k Hz): 96 dB
  • Frequency Range (-10 dB):
    • Driver/Grille Assembly: 55 Hz – 16 kHz
    • Installed in CSS-BB backcan: 100 Hz – 16 kHz
  • Coverage (2 kHz): 120°
  • Driver Continuous Power Handling: 15 Watts
  • 100V Taps: 5W, 2.5W, 1.3W
  • 70V Taps: 5W, 2.5W, 1.3W, 0.7W
  • 25V Taps: 5W, 2.5W, 1.3W, 0.7W
  • Transformer Insertion Loss: 1.5 dB Maximum
  • Transformer Connection: Bare wire
  • Motor Mass: 200 g (7 oz)
  • Safety Agency: Suitable for use in air handling spaces per UL1480, UL2043, NFPA 90 & NFPA 70, when installed with corresponding UL Listed backcan, below. S7232/UL Listed, Signaling Speaker. Transformer UL registered per UL1876. In accordance with IEC60849/EN60849.
  • Matching CSS Backcan: CSS-BB8 (0.15 cu ft)
  • Other Compatible Backcans:
    • MTC-81BB8 (0.26 cu ft)
    • MTC-200BB6 (0.5 cu ft)
    • MTC-300BB8 (1.0 cu ft)
  • Bolt Mounting Circle to Backcan: 4 points on 286 mm (11.25 in) diameter
  • Cutout Diameter:
    • Open-back: 216 mm (8.5 in)
    • In CSS-BB backcan: 295 mm (11.7 in)
  • Depth (behind grille): 71 mm (2.8 in)
  • Grille Diameter: 327 mm (12.9 in)
  • Net Weight (ea): 1.27 kg (2.8 lb)
  • Shipping Weight (ea): 1.94 kg (4.3 lb)
  • Included Accessories: 4 pcs M4 x 40 mm sheet metal screws for attaching speaker/driver/transformer assembly to corresponding backcan.

JBL is featured in the following My New Microphone articles:
Top 11 Best Home Speaker Brands You Should Know And Use
Top 11 Best Subwoofer Brands (Car, PA, Home & Studio)
Top 11 Best PA Loudspeaker Brands You Should Know And Use
Top 10 Best Loudspeaker Brands (Overall) On The Market Today

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Computer Speakers

The Cyber Acoustics CA-3602 (link to compare prices on Amazon and select retailers) is a 2.1 stereo computer speaker system.

Cyber Acoustics CA-3602

Cyber Acoustics CA-3602 Specifications.

  • Features:
    • Convenient desktop control pod:
      • On/off switch
      • Master volume
      • Bass volume control
      • Headphone output jack
      • Auxiliary input jack
    • Magnetically shielded satellites
    • Internal Power Supply
  • Total RMS: 30 watts
  • Total Peak Power: 62 Watts
  • Wattage (Satellites): Each speaker: 6 watts/ch @ 4 ohm @ 10% THD
  • Wattage (Subwoofer): 18 watts @ 4 ohm @ 10% THD
  • Satellite Drivers: 2 X 2 in. high-efficiency drivers
  • Subwoofer Driver: 5.25 in. Power Pro Series driver
  • Satellite Dimensions: (H) 8 in. X (W) 3 in. X (D) 3 in.
  • Subwoofer Dimensions: (H) 10 in. X (W) 8 in. X (D) 8 in.
  • Plug Type: Chrome, 3.5 mm plug
  • Approximate Length:
    • Power Cable: 5 ft.
    • Speaker to Speaker Cable: Separates up to 11 ft.
    • Speaker to Subwoofer Cable: 6 ft.
    • Input Cable: 6 ft. From Control Pod
    • Control Pod Cable: 6 ft. 
  • On/Off: Yes
  • Volume: Yes
  • Subwoofer Volume: Yes
  • Headphone Output: Yes
  • Aux Input: Yes
  • Power Adapter: Internal, ETL/cETL approved

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Bluetooth Speaker

The JBL Charge 4 (link to compare prices on Amazon and select retailers) is a small portable wireless Bluetooth speaker.

JBL Charge 4

JBL Charge 4 Manual/Specifications

  • Features:
    • Wireless Bluetooth Streaming
    • 20 hours of playtime
    • IPX7 waterproof
    • JBL Connect+
    • Durable fabric and rugged material
    • JBL Bass Radiator
  • Bluetooth® version: 4.2
  • Support: A2DP V1.3, AVRCP V1.6
  • Transducer: 50 x 90mm
  • Rated power: 30W RMS
  • Frequency response: 60Hz–20kHz
  • Signal-to-noise ratio: >80dB
  • Battery type: Lithium-ion Polymer 27Wh (Equivalent to 3.6V, 7500mAh)
  • Battery charge time: 4 hours (5V/2.3A)
  • Music playtime: up to 20 hours (varies by volume level and audio content)
  • USB charge out: 5V/2A (maximum)
  • Bluetooth® transmitter power: 0-20dBm
  • Bluetooth® transmitter frequency range: 2.402 – 2.480GHz
  • Bluetooth® transmitter modulation: GFSK, π/4 DQPSK, 8DPSK
  • Dimension (W × D × H): 220 x 95 x 93mm
  • Weight: 965g

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Smart Speaker Device

The Sonos Move (link to compare prices on Amazon and select retailers) is an Alexa and Google Assistant-enable smart device.

Sonos Move

Sonos Move Manual (Specifications Sheet)

  • Features:
    • Rechargeable battery lasts up to 10 hours. Easily recharge by just setting Move on the included charging base—no plugs or extra wires required. For power on the go, use a compatible USB-C charger.
    • Weatherproof design is ideal for barbecues, pool parties, and more.
    • Stream over WiFi at home—switch to Bluetooth anywhere else.
    • Easy voice control with Amazon Alexa and the Google Assistant built right in.
    • Compatible with all your other Sonos speakers for multi-room listening.
  • Amplifier: Two Class-D digital amplifiers.
  • Tweeter: One tweeter creates a crisp and accurate high frequency response.
  • Mid-Woofer: One mid-woofer ensures the faithful playback of mid-range vocal frequencies plus deep, rich bass.
  • Microphones:
    • Far-field microphone array.
    • Microphone LED, hard-wired to the voice microphones for extra privacy control so you’re always aware when the microphone is active.
  • Voice Control: Integrated voice control.
  • Wireless Connectivity: Connects to your home WiFi network with any router that supports 802.11b/g/n in 2.4GHz or 802.11a/n in 5GHz.
  • Power Supply:
    • Charging base:100-240VAC, ~50/60Hz, 1.2A. Output: 18.0VDC, 2.5A, 45.0W.
    • USB port: USB type C PD power with 45W, 20V/2.25A.
  • Battery pack:
    • Capacity: 2420-2500maH
    • Replacement: Visit our website www.sonos.com for more information.
    • Disposal: Check with your local waste or recycling company to determine the proper disposal method in your area.
  • Dimensions (H x W x D): 9.44 x 6.29 x 4.96 in (240 x 160 x 126 mm)
  • Weight: 6.61 lb (3.0 kg) (including the battery)
  • Operating Temperature: 32º to 113º F (0º to 45º C)
  • Storage Temperature: -13º to 158º F (-25º to 70º C)
  • Humidity Resistant: Move meets IP56 water and dust resistance levels. Just don’t leave it out in a soaking rainstorm.
  • Product Finish: Black with black grille
  • Package Contents: Sonos Move, charging base, and Quickstart guide.

Sonos is featured in My New Microphone’s Top 11 Best Home Speaker Brands You Should Know And Use.

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Subwoofer

The Klipsch Reference R-100SW (link to compare prices on Amazon and select retailers) is a 10″ subwoofer with a digital amplifier.

Klipsch R-100SW

Klipsch Reference R-100SW Specifications

  • Features:
    • Spun Copper IMG woofer
    • All-digital amplifier
    • Front-firing driver
    • Low-pass crossover and phase control
    • Line/LFE inputs
    • MDF cabinet with scratch-resistant, textured wood grain vinyl
    • Front-mounted LED power indicator
    • Low profile grille
  • Frequency Response: 32 Hz – 120Hz +/- 3dB
  • Maximum Acoustic Output: 112 dB
  • Amplifier: All-Digital
  • Amplifier Power (Continuous/Peak): 150W/300W
  • Amplifier Features: Volume, Low-pass, 0/180 phase, Auto Power On
  • Driver Components: 10” high excursion spun-copper IMG woofer
  • Enclosure Material: MDF
  • Enclosure Type: Bass-Reflex via rear-firing port
  • Inputs: Line level/LFE RCA jacks
  • Height: 14.5” (368 mm)
  • Width: 12.5” (318 mm)
  • Depth: 16.4” (417 mm)
  • Weight: 24 lbs (10.9 kg)
  • Finishes:
    • Black
    • Textured Wood Grain
    • Vinyl
  • Built From: 2018

Klipsch is featured in the following My New Microphone articles:
Top 11 Best Home Speaker Brands You Should Know And Use
Top 11 Best Subwoofer Brands (Car, PA, Home & Studio)
Top 10 Best Loudspeaker Brands (Overall) On The Market Today

Back to the Full List Of Speaker Specifications.


Tweeter Driver

The Dayton Audio AMT Mini-8 (link to compare prices on Amazon and select retailers) is a special air motion transformer tweeter (rather than a typical moving-coil dome tweeter.

Dayton Audio Mini-8

Dayton AudioAMT Mini-8 Specifications

  • Features:
    • Advanced Air Motion Transformer design
    • Folded Kapton ribbon diaphragm delivers clean, detailed, and highly dynamic output
    • Miniature design can be mounted virtually anywhere
    • Powerful, lightweight neodymium magnet structure for low distortion and high efficiency
  • Speaker Series: AMT Series
  • Model Number: AMT Mini-8
  • Speaker Type: Tweeter
  • Sensitivity: 88 dB @ 1W/1m
  • RMS Power Handling: 15 watts
  • Peak Power Handling: 30 watts
  • Usable Frequency Range (Hz): 3,500 – 40,000 Hz
  • Impedance: 8-Ohm
  • Re: 7.92-Ohm
  • Le: N/A
  • Fs: N/A
  • Qms: 1.86
  • Qes: N/A
  • Qts: 1.84
  • Mms: N/A
  • Cms: N/A
  • Sd: 3.8 cm2
  • Vd: N/A
  • BL: N/A
  • Vas: N/A
  • VC Diameter: N/A
  • Overall Outside Diameter: 40.5 mm
  • Overall Depth: 23mm
  • Color: Black
  • List Price: $39.99

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Coaxial Full-Range Driver

The B&C 8CX21 (link to compare prices at select retailers) is a full-range coaxial speaker with 2 individual drivers along the same axis.

B&C 8CX21

B&C Specifications Sheet

Features:

  • 400 W continuous program power capacity
  • 100° nominal coverage
  • 75 – 20000 Hz response
  • 94 dB sensitivity
  • 34.5 mm (1.35”) HF unit exit diameter
  • XO-1 dedicated crossover network

Specifications:

  • Nominal Diameter: 210mm (8.0 in)
  • Nominal Impedance: 8 Ω
  • Minimum Impedance LF: 6.1 Ω
  • Minimum Impedance HF: 7.2 Ω
  • Frequency Range: 75 – 20,000 Hz
  • Dispersion Angle: 100°
  • Woofer Cone Treatment: WP Waterproof Front Side
  • Magnet Material: Ceramic

Specifications LF Unit:

  • LF Sensitivity: 94.0 dB
  • LF Nominal Power Handling: 200 W
  • LF Continuous Power Handling: 400 W
  • LF Voice Coil Diameter: 52mm (2.0 in)
  • LF Winding Material: Copper
  • LF Flux Density: 1.1 T
  • Former Material: Kapton
  • Winding Depth: 16.0mm (0.63 in)
  • Magnetic Gap Depth: 8.0mm (0.31 in)

Specifications HF Unit:

  • Sensitivity: 101.0 dB
  • Nominal Power Handling: 25 W
  • Continuous Power Handling: 50 W
  • Voice Coil Diameter: 36mm (1.4 in)
  • Winding Material: Aluminum
  • Flux Density: 1.45 T
  • Diaphragm Material: Polyester
  • Recommended Crossover: 2.2 kHz
  • Inductance: 0.14 mH

Parameters:

  • Resonance Frequency: 74 Hz
  • Re: 5.2 Ω
  • Qes: 0.39
  • Qms: 4.1
  • Qts: 0.36
  • Vas: 15.0 dm3 (0.55 ft3)
  • Sd: 220.0 cm2 (34.1 in2)
  • η₀: 1.5%
  • Xmax: 5.0mm
  • Xvar: 5.5mm
  • Mms: 21.0 g
  • Bl: 115 Txm
  • Le: 1.2 mH
  • EBP: 189 Hz

Mounting & Dimensions:

  • Overall Diameter: 225 mm (8.8 in)
  • Bolt Circle Diameter: 210 mm (8.3 in)
  • Baffle Cutout Diameter: 187 mm (7.4 in)
  • Depth: 135 mm (5.3 in)
  • Flange and Gasket Thickness: 11 mm (0.4 in)
  • Net Weight: 4.0 kg (8.8 lb)
  • Shipping Units: 1
  • Shipping Weight: 4.6 kg (10.14 lb)
  • Shipping Box: 295x314x175 mm (11.61×12.36×6.89 in)

Crossover:

  • Model: XO-1
  • Filter Type: Two-way
  • Nominal Impedance: 8.0 Ω
  • Low-pass Slope: 12.0 dB/oct
  • High-pass Slope: 12.0 dB/oct
  • Overall Dimensions: 107×96 mm (4.2×3.8 in)
  • Weight: 0.4 kg (0.9 lb)

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Mid-Range Driver

The Eminence Delta-10A (link to compare prices at select retailers) is a 10″ 8Ω mid-range driver/woofer.

Eminence Delta 10-A

Eminence Delta-10A Specifications Sheet

Specifications:

  • Nominal Basket Diameter: 10,0″, 254mm
  • Nominal Impedance: 8 Ω
  • Power Rating:
    • Watts: 350 W
    • Music Program: 700 W
  • Resonance: 66 Hz
  • Usable Frequency Range: 63 Hz – 3.7 kHz
  • Sensitivity: 98.8 dB
  • Magnet Weight: 56 oz.
  • Gap Height: 0.375″, 9.5mm
  • Voice Coil Diameter: 2.5″, 64mm

Thiele & Small Parameters:

  • Fs: 66 Hz
  • Re: 5.42 Ω
  • Le: 0.74 mH
  • Qms: 6.53
  • Qes: 0.35
  • Qts: 0.33
  • Vas: 1.08 cu.ft., 30.50 liters
  • Vd: 121.0 cc
  • Cms: 0.18 mm/N
  • BL: 14.40 T-M
  • Mms: 32 g
  • EBP: 189
  • Xmax: 3.50 mm
  • Sd: 344.9 cm2
  • Xlim: 9.4 mm

Mounting Information:

  • Recommended Enclosure Volume:
    • Sealed: N/A
    • Vented: 12.70–37.90 litres, 0.45–1.34 cu.ft.
  • Driver Volume Displaced: 0.050 cu.ft., 1.42 litres
  • Overall Diameter: 10.09’’, 256.3 mm
  • Baffle Hole Diameter: 9.18’’, 233.2 mm
  • Front Sealing Gasket: Yes
  • Rear Sealing Gasket: Yes
  • Mounting Holes Diameter: 0.25’’, 6.4 mm
  • Mounting Holes B.C.D.: 9.66’’, 245.4 mm
  • Depth: 4.25”, 108.0 mm
  • Net Weight: 10.80 lbs , 4.90 kg
  • Shipping Weight: 12.00 lbs , 5.44 kg

Materials Of Construction:

  • Aluminum voice coil
  • Polyimide former
  • Ferrite magnet
  • Vented core
  • Pressed steel basket
  • Paper cone
  • Cloth cone edge
  • Solid composition paper dust cap

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Woofer Driver

The Dayton Audio RS225-8 (link to compare prices at select retailers) is an 8″ 8Ω woofer driver.

Dayton Audio RS225-8

Dayton Audio RS225-8 Specifications

  • Features:
    • One of the lowest distortion, highest resolution driver series available
    • Low-distortion high-excursion motor system with two short-circuit paths
    • Compliant suspension and rigid black anodized aluminum cone for strong bass performance
    • Heavy-duty 6-hole cast frame, low-loss rubber surround, and solid aluminum phase plug
  • Speaker Series: Reference Series
  • Model Number: RS225-8
  • Speaker Type: Woofer
  • Nominal Diameter: 8″
  • Power Handling (RMS): 80 watts
  • Power Handling (max): 160 watts
  • Impedance: 8 ohms
  • Sensitivity: 86.8 dB @ 2.83V/1m
  • Frequency Response: 28 – 2,400 Hz
  • Voice Coil Diameter: 38 mm
  • DC Resistance (Re): 6.5 ohms
  • Voice Coil Inductance (Le): 0.86 mH @ 1 kHz
  • Resonant Frequency (Fs): 28.3 Hz
  • Mechanical Q (Qms): 1.46
  • Electromagnetic Q (Qes): 0.51
  • Total Q (Qts): 0.38
  • Diaphragm Mass Inc. Airload (Mms): 35.8g
  • Mechanical Compliance of Suspension (Cms): 0.88 mm/N
  • Surface Area Of Cone (Sd): 213.8 cm2
  • Volume Of Displacement (Vd): 149.7 cm3
  • BL Product (BL): 9.05 Tm
  • Compliance Equivalent Volume (Vas): 56.8 litres
  • Maximum Linear Excursion (Xmax): 7.0 mm
  • Cone/Diaphragm Material: Black Anodized Aluminum Cone
  • Surround Material: Rubber
  • Voice Coil Wire Material: Copper
  • Voice Coil Former: Aluminum
  • Basket/Frame Material: Cast Aluminum
  • Magnet Material: Ferrite
  • Overall Outside Diameter: 223 mm
  • Overall Depth: 89 mm
  • Baffle Cutout Diameter: 184 mm
  • # Mounting Holes: 6
  • List Price: $74.99
  • Color: Black
  • Warranty – Parts & Labor: 5 Years
  • Product Shipping Weight (lbs.): 6.1
  • Optimum Cabinet Size:
    • Sealed Volume: 0.44 ft.³
    • Sealed F3: 66 Hz
    • Vented Volume: 1.17 ft.³
    • Vented F3: 38 Hz

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Electrostatic Speaker

The MartinLogan Classic ESL 9 (link to check it out at MartinLogan.com) is an electrostatic speaker.

MartinLogan Classic ESL 9

MartinLogan Classic ESL 9 Manual

  • System Frequency Response: 34–23,000 Hz ± 3db
  • Recommended Amplifier Power: 50–400 watts per channel at 4 Ohms
  • Dispersion:
    • Horizontal: 30 Degrees
    • Vertical: 44” (112 cm) line source
  • Sensitivity: 90 dB/2.83 volts/meter
  • Impedance: Nominal: 4 ohms, 0.8 ohms @ 20 kHz
  • Crossover Frequency: 380 Hz
  • High/Mid Frequency Driver: 44” x 9.2” (112 x 23.4 cm) CLS XStat electrostatic (405 in2/2,621 cm2)
  • Woofers: 2x 8” (20.3cm) cast basket, high excursion, rigid aluminum cone with extended throw drive assembly, non-resonance asymmetrical chamber format.
  • Components:
    • Custom-wound audio transformer
    • Air-core coils
    • Low DCR steel laminate coils
    • Polyester capacitors
  • Signal Inputs: Custom 5-way bi-wire tool-less binding posts
  • Power Draw Max: 2W per channel
  • Standby: <1W per channel
  • Weight: 78 lbs. each (35.4 kg)
  • Size (H x W x D): 59.8” × 10.4” × 25.4” (152 × 26.4 × 64.6 cm)

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Planar Magnetic Speaker

The Magnepan 1.7i (link to check it out at Magnepan.com) is a planar magnetic speaker.

Magnepan 1.7i

Magnepan 1.7i Specifications

  • Description: 3-Way, Full-Range, Quasi-Ribbon
  • Frequency Response: 40 – 24,000 Hz
  • Sensitivity: 86 dB 2.83V/1m @ 500 Hz
  • Impedance: 4-Ohm
  • Dimensions: 19 x 65 x 2
  • Trim options:
    • (Wood) Natural or black solid oak, dark cherry.
    • (Aluminum) Silver or black.
  • Fabric options:
    • Off-white
    • Black
    • Dark grey

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Speaker With AMT (Air Motion Transformer) Tweeter

The HEDD Audio Type20 (link to check prices at select retailers) is an active 3-way mid-field/near-field monitor with a 2″ woofer, 1.25″ midrange speaker and AMT tweeter.

HEDD Audio Type20

HEDD Audio Type20 Manual

Drivers:

  • Woofer: 7” (182mm) Ultra Honeycomb Composite
    • Voice coil Ø: 2” (50mm)
  • Midrange: 1 x 4“ (120mm) Ultra Honeycomb Composite
    • Voice coil Ø: 1.25“ (32mm)
  • Tweeter: 1x HEDD AMT (HEDD Air Motion Transformer)
    • Equiv. Diaphragm Ø: 2.2” (56mm)

Input connectors:

  • Analog balanced/ unbalanced: XLR / RCA
  • Digital/HEDD Bridge Options: AES67 Ravenna, Dante, AES3/EBU

General data:

  • Amplification (ICEpower®): 3 x 300W
  • Sensitivity: 218 mVrms (-11 dBu) / 90 dB SPL / 1m at 0 dB GAIN
  • Input gain: -30dB … +6dB
  • Maximum input level (balanced / unbalanced): 6Vrms (+17.8dBu, +17.6dBV) / 4.5Vrms (+15.3dBu, +13.0dBV)
  • High Shelf EQ > 2kHz: ±4dB at 20kHz
  • Low Shelf EQ < 200Hz: ±4dB at 50Hz
  • Frequency response: 32Hz–50kHz
  • Frequency response ± 1.5dB: 40Hz – 20kHz
  • THD 90dB/1m > 100Hz: ≤0.5 %
  • Max SPL sine wave 100Hz – 3kHz /1m: ≥110dB
  • Max SPL peak per pair at 1m: ≥120dB
  • Crossover frequency: 250Hz / 2.5kHz
  • Input impedance (balanced / unbalanced): 10kΩ / 47kΩ
  • Weight: 15kg
  • Height x Width x Depth: 280mm x 358mm x 338mm
  • Warranty: 2 years

HEDD Audio is featured in My New Microphone’s Top 11 Best Studio Monitor Brands You Should Know And Use.

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Guitar Cabinet

The Orange PPC112 (link to compare prices on Amazon and select retailers) is a guitar cabinet with a 12″ 16Ω speaker driver.

Orange PPC112C

Orange PPC112 Specifications

  • Features:
    • 1″ x 12″ Closed-Back Design
    • 18mm Birch Plywood Construction
    • 2 x Parallel Jacks For Daisy-Chaining To Another 16-Ohm Cabinet (Total Impedance = 8 Ohms)
    • Hard Wearing Woven Paper Grille Cloth
    • Skid Runners
    • Steel Hardware
  • Power Handling: 60 Watts (Mono)
  • Speakers: 1 x Celestion Vintage 30
  • Impedance: 16-Ohm
  • Dimensions (W x H x D): 55 x 45 x 29 cm (21.65 x 17.72 x 11.42″)
  • Weight: 14.75 kg (32.52 lb)

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Wireless Speaker

The Rocketfish RF-WHTIB-A (link to check the price on Amazon) is not a speaker but a wireless RF speaker system (transmitter and receiver).

Rocketfish RF-WHTIB-A

Wireless transmitter:

  • Audio Input: Stereo, speaker-level
  • Maximum audio input signal: 11 V RMS into 120 ohms
  • Audio Output: Wireless Stereo, 16-bit, 48 kHz uncompressed
  • Supply voltage: 5V
  • Transmission Delay: 15-20 ms

Wireless receiver:

  • Audio Input: Wireless Stereo, 16-bit, 48 kHz, uncompressed
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio: 87 dB
  • Audio Output: High-Efficiency Class D, Speaker-level
  • Speaker Impedance Support: 4 to 16-ohm speakers
  • Audio output power: 2 × 30 W (RMS) into 4 ohms (no more than 10% THD)
  • Transmission Delay: 15-20 ms
  • Power Supply: AC 100-240 V ~ 50/60 Hz

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