Complete Guide To Power Amplifier Specifications & Data


Power amplifiers, whether separate units or built into other audio equipment (speakers, integrated amps, etc.), are critical components in any loudspeaker setup. With so many power amp options, it’s good to know how to read their specifications to get a good idea of how each amp will perform.

What are power amplifier specifications? Power amplifier specifications, shown on specifications/datasheets, are pieces of information that tell us the electrical, mechanical and physical characteristics of a power amp and give us insight as to how the amplifier will perform under normal circumstances.

In this article, we’ll describe each of these power amplifier specifications and what they mean to the overall functionality of a given amplifier unit. Note that some amplifiers will be subject to different specs than others based on the amplifier-specific design.


Power Amplifier Specifications

Power amplifiers are defined by many different specifications. Some are more important than others to the overall functionality of the amp and all will be listed in this article.

These specifications can be found in amplifier data sheets, manuals and product pages. Each spec will be described briefly with links to more in-depth articles when applicable. I will also add real-world examples of power amplifiers that have the specifications mentioned.

In order to provide real-world examples of each specification, I’ve collected a series of datasheets/product pages from specific amplifier manufacturers of various amplifier types. The examples are listed below:

The included links will bring you to the bottom of this article where each of the power amplifiers is described in more detail with all their specifications laid out as a reference.

Alternatively, you can skip to the section Power Amplifier Examples For This Article by clicking the link.

Power Amplifier TypeReal World Example
Stereo Power AmplifierCrown Audio XLi 2500
Stereo integrated amplifier with built-in DACAnthem STR
Digital Multi-Zone Power AmplifierAudioSource AD5012
Car Power AmplifierRockford Fosgate Power T600-4
Mono Subwoofer AmplifierHertz Mille ML Power 1
7.2-Channel (Surround Sound) Network A/V ReceiverSony STR DN1080

List Of Power Amplifier Specifications


Features

Features include paragraphs and/or lists of key characteristics the manufacturer believes are important to describe their power amplifiers.

These descriptions give us a good idea as to what the amplifier is all about and what the manufacturer designed the power amplifier to do. The features section will also typically introduce any proprietary technology the manufacturer included in the amplifier.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Features:

  • Stereo/parallel/bridge-mono mode
  • User-selectable input sensitivity to power consumer devices: 0.775V and 1.4V
  • RCA and XLR inputs; Speakon® and binding post outputs
  • Two-level controls, power switch and LEDs to indicate signal presence, clip and fault for each channel
  • Protection against shorts, no-load, on/off thumps and radio-frequency interference
  • Efficient forced-air cooling prevents excessive thermal buildup
  • One-year, no-fault, fully transferable warranty completely protects your investment

Anthem STR

Features & Functions:

  • High-resolution preamplifier section
  • High current, high output amplifier section
  • Amplifier uses 8 bipolar output devices per channel, a toroidal transformer power supply, and Advanced Load Monitoring for 200W at 8 ohms, 400W at 4 ohms, 550W at 2 ohms, all continuous
  • Anthem Room Correction™ to optimize in-room response
  • Bass management for two subwoofers, in mono or stereo
  • Up-sampling of lower-resolution sources to 24-bit / 192 kHz
  • Asynchronous USB Audio Input supports 32-bit / 384 kHz PCM, and DSD 2.8 / 5.6 MHz sources
  • S/PDIF coaxial and optical, and balanced AES/EBU inputs
  • MM and MC phono, balanced XLR, and single-ended analog inputs
  • Analog Direct mode
  • Graphic Front Panel Display for easy setup navigation
  • Controllable via Ethernet, RS-232, or supplied IR remote

AudioSource AD5012

Features:

  • 12 Channels (6 stereo zones)
  • 12 Rear-mounted level controls
  • 12 Independent inputs, 2 Bus inputs, 1 optical input
  • Bus 1 and Bus 2 master level controls
  • Multi-function IR remote control
  • Normal, signal sensing, and trigger power modes
  • Rear-mounted treble and bass controls for bus 1 & 2
  • Phoenix-style speaker connectors
  • LED status indicator lights
  • Bridgeable channel outputs
  • Rack-mountable (rack mount included)

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Features:

  • ADC (ADVANCED D-CLASS TECHNOLOGY) ensures hi-end acoustic response with unmatched power efficiency
  • Thermally optimized double extruded heat sink featuring die-cast aluminium ergonomic terminals
  • Stable at 1Ω to drive safely Mille subwoofers
  • Optional HRC BM for subwoofer volume control
  • 24 dB/Oct. continuously adjustable (50 to 500Hz) Lo-Pass filters and
    24dB/Oct. subsonic filter (18 to 40Hz)
  • Variable phase control with 0–180°continuity to optimize low frequencies
  • ML Power IN with balanced Speaker In inputs for increased noise rejection and RCA In
  • Operating status real-time monitoring through 4 LEDs
  • Pre-out full range outputs also available with Speaker In inputs
  • ART™ (Automatic Remote Turn On-Off)

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Number Of Channels

A single power amplifier unit can have multiple amplifier channels. Each channel outputs its own amplified audio signal.

The number of channels should be specified and refers to the number of distinct inputs and outputs in the amplifier’s design.

Mono audio is made of a single channel while stereo has two channels (left and right). Surround sound typically has 5 or seven channels with an additional channel for a subwoofer.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

  • Channels: 2

AudioSource AD5012

Features:

  • 12 Channels (6 stereo zones)

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Number of Channels: 4

Sony STR DN1080

Number Of Amp Channels: 7ch

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Number Of Decodable Channels

The number of decodable channels refers to the number of channels the amplifier can effectively convert from a digital audio format. These digital audio files must be converted into analog signals before getting outputted to drive loudspeakers.

By the definition of this specification, we can see that it only applies to power amplifiers that have digital-to-analog converting technology.

Examples

Sony STR DN1080

Number Of Decodable Channels: 7ch + Phantom 2ch

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Decoding Formats

The decoding formats specification tell us all the compatible digital audio formats the power amplifier is capable of using.

The specification will also generally tell us the resolution and/or available channels of each digital audio format.

Knowing the compatible audio formats helps us to determine if the amplifier will be a good fit with our digital audio player.

Examples

Sony STR DN1080

Decoding Format for USB/Network Client:

  • Hi-Res Format:
    • DSDIFF (DSD): Up to 5.6 MHz 5.1ch
    • DSF: Up to 5.6 MHz 5.1ch
    • WAV (LCPM): Up to 192 kHz/24 bit 7.1ch
    • AIFF (LCPM): Up to 192 kHz/24 bit 5.1ch
    • FLAC: Up to 192 kHz/24 bit 5.1ch
    • ALAC: Up to 192 kHz/24 bit 5.1ch
  • Other Format:
    • [MP3].MP3,
    • [AAC/HE-AAC].m4a
    • .AAC
    • [WMA9 Standard].WMA

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Network Connectivity

Some power amplifiers have additional interfaces that allow them to connect to other networks. Nowadays many of these network connections are completed wirelessly though wired network connectivity is also possible.

Network connections include Wi-Fi; Bluetooth; online streaming services (Google Play, Spotify, etc.) and voice assistant control.

Examples

Sony STR DN1080

Network Connectivity:

  • Spotify Connect: Yes
  • Network Features:
    • Bluetooth® Receiver
    • Bluetooth® Transmitter
    • NFC
    • Wi-Fi®
    • AirPlay
    • Mobile Control Application
    • Wireless Multi-Room
  • Chromecast Built-In: Yes
  • Works With Google Assistant: Yes

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Sound Enhancement Technologies

There are various sound enhancement technologies available for inclusion in power amplifiers. Some are proprietary to the specific manufacturers of the amps while other are openly available.

Sound enhancement technologies, as the name suggests, improve the sound quality of the amplifier by a variety of different methods.

The specifics of the many sound enhancement technologies is beyond the scope of this article.

Examples

Sony STR DN1080

Sound Enhancement Technologies:

  • DSD Native Playback
  • DSEE HX
  • Pure Direct
  • Sound Optimizer
  • Center Speaker Lift Up
  • Digital Legato Linear
  • In-Ceiling Speaker Mode

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Sound Field

The sound field specification ties in nicely with the number of channels specification but offers more detail.

An amplifier with multiple channels is nice to have but channels, by themselves, do not necessarily yield the results we want. Rather, the speaker placement and room qualities determine the results we’re after.

As a simple example, placing a stereo pair of speakers one on top of the other will not yield a nice stereo image, even if the speakers are connected to a 2-channel stereo power amplifier. It’s on us to position the left channel speaker to the left and the right channel speaker to the right.

The sound field specification, though rare, gives us insight into the possible speaker setups that are compatible with the power amp. We can, at a glance, see if the amplifier is able to provide the sound field we’ve after.

Examples

Sony STR DN1080

Sound Field:

  • 2ch Stereo
  • Direct
  • Multi Ch Stereo
  • Dolby® Surround
  • Neural: X
  • Front Surround
  • Audio Enhancer
  • Headphone 2ch

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Auto Speaker Calibration

To achieve the best sound field and listening environment, speakers must be placed appropriately and their outputs (levels and phase) must be properly set. Each combination of speakers, amplifier and room has a different optimal calibration.

Some amplifiers have sophisticated technology that will help us to find the optimal set up for our specific room(s). This technology is listed under “speaker calibration” or “auto speaker calibration” specifications.

Examples

Sony STR DN1080

Auto Speaker Calibration:

  • Calibration Features:
    • DCAC EX
    • Speaker Relocation
    • Phantom Surround Back
    • Automatic Phase Matching
    • Calibration Mic (Stereo)

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Power Rating/Output

The power rating of the power amplifier is one of the most important specifications to understand but, unfortunately, one of the least trustworthy specs on a manufacturer’s datasheet.

Power amplifiers output electrical power (measured in watts) to drive loudspeakers. The power rating/output specification of the amplifier is a measurement of the maximum power available to be drawn from the amplifier by the loudspeaker.

That being said, manufacturers play tricks and marketing departments often insist upon listing inflated power ratings on their amplifiers’ specifications sheets.

The power rating of an amplifier is often described as RMS (root-mean-square) power, which is a misnomer. There’s technically no such thing as RMS power. Rather, the “Prms” value is calculated using rms voltage (Vrms) and/or rms current (Irms) in its equations.

Without trying to confuse you, RMS power is often listed to mean the maximum continuous power output of the amplifier (though the two are not the same thing).

Whether stated as RMS or continuous, we can expect the power rating to be the maximum available power from the amplifier during continuous output. In other words, outputting an average power below the power rating can be sustained over long period of time without damaging the amplifier and/or the connected loudspeaker(s).

Amplifier power outputs can also be measured in peak which refers to the maximum peak power output of the amplifier. This spec is not overly useful but does give an impressive wattage number.

Exceeding the power rating of the amplifier could lead to significant distortion (this is typically noted by a percentage of THD – total harmonic distortion) in the power rating specification.

Exceeding the power rating can also lead to the overheating of the amplifier which may cause a protective fuse to break and turn the unit off or, in a worst case, cause damage to the amplifier and even the connected loudspeaker(s).

Note that power ratings are given on a per-channel basis unless otherwise stated. Most power handling specs are also measured into an 8Ω load, unless stated otherwise, to simulate a typical nominal speaker impedance value.

It’s also important to know that, in order to maintain the same voltage, lower impedance speakers demand more power from their amplifiers. For this reason, some speakers will fail to drive lower impedance speakers because the power demands become too high for the amp to operate safely.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Power:

  • 4Ω Dual: 750W
  • 8Ω Dual: 500W
  • 8Ω Bridged: 1500W

Anthem STR

Power Amplifier:

Output (per channel, continuous, 20 Hz – 20 kHz, <1% THD):

  • 200 W (8Ω)
  • 400 W (4Ω)
  • 550 W (2Ω)

AudioSource AD5012

  • Stereo (8 ohm): 12 x 50W per channel, <0.2% THD+N
  • Stereo (4 ohm): 12 x 75W per channel, <0.2% THD+N
  • Bridged Mono (8 ohm): 125W, 1kHz, <0.2% THD+N

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

  • Total Power (Sum of Rated Power): 600 Watts RMS
  • Rated Power (RMS Continuous Power):
    • 100 Watts x 4 @ 4-Ohm
    • 150 Watts x 4 @ 2-Ohm
    • 300 Watts x 2 @ 4-Ohm Bridged
    • 2-Ohm x 2 Bridged Stable
  • Dynamic Power (PVC/PowerCube®):
    • Front Channels:
      • 139 Watts x 2 @ 4-Ohms 0° Res
      • 236 Watts x 2 @ 2-Ohms 0° Res
    • Rear Channels:
      • 140 Watts x 2 @ 4-Ohms 0° Res
      • 236 Watts x 2 @ 2-Ohms 0° Res

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

  • RMS Power (4 Ω, ≤ 1 % THD+N, 14.4 V): 600 W x 1Ch
  • Output Power (RMS) @ 14.4 VDC, THD 1% (1 Channel):
    • 600 W x 1 (4Ω)
    • 1000 W x 1 (2Ω)
    • 1000 W x 1 (1Ω)

Sony STR DN1080

Power Output: 165 W (6 ohms, 1 kHz, 1ch driven THD 0.9%)

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Total Power

Total power refers to the sum of the rated power of all the amplifier’s output channels.

Total power is not an overly interesting specification. Rather, it’s another way for manufacturers to suggest how powerful their amp is with a large number.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Total Power (Sum of Rated Power): 600 Watts RMS

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Dynamic Power

The dynamic power of an amplifier is measured by repeatedly feeding a 1000 Hz signal for 20 milliseconds (or another short amount of time) followed by 480 milliseconds (or another longer amount of time) of no signal.

The amplifier volume control is turned up until the amp reaches the clipping point. At that point, the amp has reached its instantaneous peak or dynamic power output.

This rating, again, is listed t boast higher power rating numbers in order to make the amplifier look more powerful than it is.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Dynamic Power (PVC/PowerCube®):

  • Front Channels:
    • 139 Watts x 2 @ 4-Ohms 0° Res
    • 236 Watts x 2 @ 2-Ohms 0° Res
  • Rear Channels:
    • 140 Watts x 2 @ 4-Ohms 0° Res
    • 236 Watts x 2 @ 2-Ohms 0° Res

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Bridgeability

The bridgeability specifications tells us if the amplifier is bridgeable or not. This spec is sometimes found on its own but is typically found in the features and/or the power ratings of the amplifier.

A bridgeable amplifier is a dual-channel (or more) power amplifier that is designed with a bridge mode.

It must have 2 channels and either common ground for both channels with a switchable inverter in one channel or a floating isolated output section for each channel.

The “bridge mode” switch effectively puts the outputs in series.

In bridge mode, we get a single channel (though both outputs are connected) and twice the voltage swing. Bridge mode allows us to get a higher output power from a smaller amplifier by effectively combining available power from two channels.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Features:

  • Stereo/parallel/bridge-mono mode

AudioSource AD5012

Features:

  • Bridgeable channel outputs

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

  • Bridgeable: Yes

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Circuit Topology Class

Power amplifiers are often defined by their class, noted by a letter.

The amplifier class gives us a broad suggestion of the amp’s performance characteristics. The major difference between the classes has to do with the time period that the amplifier is passing current. This is expressed as a fraction of the period of a single waveform applied to the amp’s input.

With this difference in current-passing time comes a slew of other general characteristics that apply to each class.

For example:

  • Class-A: conducting through all the period of the signal.
  • Class-B: conducting through one-half the input period.
  • Class-C: conducting through much less than half the input period.
  • Class-D (digital): conducting in a switching manner in a PWM (pulse-width modulation) manner.

Other less-common amplifier classes include:

  • Class-AB
  • Class-E
  • Class-G
  • Class-H
  • Class-S

There are variations of the above classes in amplifiers today but these are the most common types we’ll find on the market.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Circuit Topology Class: Class A/B

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Features:

  • ADC (ADVANCED D-CLASS TECHNOLOGY) ensures hi-end acoustic response with unmatched power efficiency

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Efficiency

Amplifier efficiency is specified as a percentage. It is effectively a measurement of how well the amplifier utilizes the power from the power supply.

The efficiency rating tells us how much power is being used to output an amplified signals and, by deduction, how much power is lost as heat.

For example, an efficiency rating of 70% tells us that 70% of the inputted power is used to output signal(s) from the amplifier and 30% of the power is lost as heat.

As we can imagine, higher efficiency amplifiers waste less energy, run cooler and have the potential to output stronger signals.

Efficiency is largely a product of the amplifier class, which we discussed above. Generally speaking, the popular amplifier classes have efficiency ratings in the following ranges:

Amplifier ClassTypical Efficiency Range
Class A15-35%
Class B50-78.5% (theoretical max)
Class AB50-70%
Class C~80%
Class D90%-100% (theoretical max)
Class F>90%
Class G & H50-70%

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Efficiency (average):

  • 70% @ 4-Ohm
  • 64% @ 2-Ohm

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Outputs

The outputs specification of a power amplifier refers to the physical output connections used in the unit to connect the amplifier to its loudspeaker(s).

There are plenty of different connectors to be aware of. Knowing which output connections are featured in the power amp units helps us to choose the proper speaker cable to use in conjunction with the amp and speaker(s).

Common outputs include:

  • RCA
  • Phoenix
  • Binding posts
  • Screw terminal
  • Speakon®

The outputs specification may also tell us the specified channels of multi-channel amplifiers (this is often the case with surround sound amplifiers).

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Features:

  • Speakon® and binding post outputs

AudioSource AD5012

Features:

  • Phoenix-style speaker connectors

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Signal Output:

  • Low Level: 1 RCA pair
  • Speaker Output Connector: Screw terminal barrier strip

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

  • Outputs: Pre OUT

Sony STR DN1080

  • Input And Output Terminals:
    • Pre Out Subwoofer (2)
    • Composite Monitor Out (1)
    • Headphone Output (1)
    • USB (1 Front)
    • Ethernet Port (1)
  • Speakers Output Terminals:
    • Front A
    • Center
    • Surround
    • Surround Back
    • Zone2 (Common with Surround Back)
    • Height (Common with Surround Back)
    • Front B (Common with Surround Back)
    • Bi-AMP (Common with Surround Back)

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Output Impedance

The actual output impedance is rarely, if ever, specified in the specifications of a power amplifier. Rather, it is the rated load impedance that is specified.

Some hint as to the actual output impedance can be found in the damping factor specification. Inferring an exact value of the output impedance, however, is practically impossible, without directly measuring it ourselves.

No Examples

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Rated Load Impedance

The rated load impedance of an amplifier is typically found in various power ratings. It essentially tells us the speakers the amplifier will be capable of driving.

As we’ve previously discussed, speakers with lower impedances demand more power from the amplifier. Some amplifiers are incapable of effectively driving low-impedance speakers.

The rated load impedance is a specification that helps us to match the amplifier to compatible speakers.

The rated load impedance does not tell us the output impedance of the amplifier. It simply states the appropriate nominal speaker impedance values the amplifier is able to drive effectively.

Examples

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Load impedance (1 Channel): 4 – 1Ω

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Frequency Response

The frequency response of the amplifier tells us the range of frequencies (with a tolerance ± value) that the amplifier is capable of amplifying.

Any amplifier worth spending money on should have a frequency response across the human range of audible frequencies (20 Hz – 20,000 Hz) and be as flat as possible (have a very low tolerance value).

Because of the flat and extended nature of good amplifier frequency responses, manufacturers do not publish frequency response graphs.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Frequency Response (at 1 Watt): 20Hz – 20kHz, +0/-1dB

Anthem STR

Frequency Response (20 Hz – 20 kHz): ± 0.1 dB

AudioSource AD5012

Frequency Response: 20Hz ~ 20kHz, +/-0dB

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Frequency Response: 20Hz to 20kHz +/- 1dB

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Power Bandwidth

The power bandwidth of an amplifier is practically the same thing as the frequency response though it may be calculated differently.

The frequency response typically deals with the audible frequency range of the amplifier.

The power bandwidth, technically speaking, is the range of frequencies (or sometimes the upper-frequency limit, depending on the manufacturer) for which the amp’s power rating can be maintained.

The maintenance of such a power rating need not be perfect across the entire range and a tolerance (±) should be specified.

Examples

Anthem STR

Power Bandwidth (-3 dB at 200 W into 8 ohms): 80 kHz

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Bandwidth (-3 dB): 18 – 500 Hz

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

Total harmonic distortion is a rather odd specification in the way that it tells us information. Its purpose as a specification is, ultimately, to tell us the amount of distortion or “colouration” an amplifier will add to the sound.

Amplifiers add gain to an input signal to increase its level at the output. Applying gain, however clean the gain is, has the side effect of introducing distortion.

THD is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present in a signal and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency.

It is calculated with a simple sine wave (a single frequency) and is stated as a percentage.

So specific testing circumstances must be used to calculate THD values for amplifier. It’s important for the manufacturer to include these parameters (test tone frequency or sweeping range, power output, speaker load impedance, etc.) in order to the THD specification to mean anything.

Note that the THD specification, by itself, is inherent to the amplifier.

That being said, pushing the amplifier too hard will cause an increase in distortion, which can also be calculated with a threshold of a certain THD percentage. We see that in some manufacturers’ power rating/output and maximum output specifications.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD): < 0.5%, 20 Hz – 20 kHz

Anthem STR

THD (100 W):

  • 0.002% (1 kHz)
  • 0.015% (20 kHz)

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Distorsion – THD (100 Hz @ 4Ω): 0.08 %

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


THD+N

THD+N stands for Total Harmonic Distortion plus Noise.

Amplifiers add distortion and noise to an input signal during the process of amplification. THD+N aims to calculate numerical values for this additional distortion. As is the case with THD, THD+N is measured under specific testing parameters that should be included in the spec to give it any meaning.

THD is tested using a single fundamental frequency. The levels of harmonic distortion and noise across all frequencies are measured and compared to the level of the fundamental frequency.

As you can imagine, a THD+N spec should yield a higher percentage than THD alone.

Examples

Anthem STR

Phone Preamplifier:

  • THD+N (at 1 kHz, 20 Hz – 20 kHz BW, 2 Vrms output): 0.008% (MC), 0.005% (MM)

Preamplifier:

  • THD+N (at 1 kHz, 20 Hz – 20 kHz BW, 2 Vrms output):
    • digital-in, 44.1 kHz, 0 dBFS: 0.0008%
    • analog-in, DSP mode, 1 Vrms input: 0.0020%
    • analog-in, direct mode, 1 Vrms input: 0.0020%

AudioSource AD5012

  • Stereo (8 ohm): 12 x 50W per channel, <0.2% THD+N
  • Stereo (4 ohm): 12 x 75W per channel, <0.2% THD+N
  • Bridged Mono (8 ohm): 125W, 1kHz, <0.2% THD+N

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD+Noise):

  • 4-Ohm: <1.0%
  • 2-Ohm: <1.0%

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

RMS Power (4 Ω, ≤ 1 % THD+N, 14.4 V): 600 W x 1Ch

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Intermodulation Distortion (IMD)

Intermodulation distortion (IMD), like THD, is measured and represented as a percentage of the total output at specified testing circumstances.

IMD occurs when two or more signals are mixed in the amplifier. Tones interact with each other and often produce modulated non-harmonic “side-band” frequencies that are not actually part of the input signals. These additional frequencies are amplified by the amplifier and add distortion to the output signal.

As a simple example, a 300 Hz tone and a 500 Hz would combine to produce a non-harmonic 800 Hz tone and a 200 Hz tone. Even if these inter-modulated tones are low in amplitude (they typically are), they do add some amount of measurable distortion. IMD aims to measure and specify this distortion.

Again, the testing parameters must be included in order for the IMD specification to make any sense.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Intermodulation Distortion (IMD) (60 Hz and 7 kHz at 4:1 from full rated output to –30 dB): =/ < 0.35%

Anthem STR

IMD (100 W):

  • ITU-R (19 kHz + 20 kHz): 0.0007%
  • SMPTE (60 Hz + 7 kHz): 0.005%

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Slew Rate

The slew rate of an amplifier is the rate of how quickly the amp can respond to a rapid change of input level. It is measured as a change in voltage with respect to time.

On the surface level, slew rate tells us how well the amplifier will respond to fast-changing voltage levels. This tells us how accurate and dynamic the amplifier is. However, if we dig closer, we see that the slew rate is generally measured in volts per microsecond.

Therefore, the slew rate tells us more about the high-frequency output power capabilities of the amplifier rather than its dynamic character. The high frequencies of the AC audio signal cause very fact variations in voltage and the slew rate must be high in order for the amplifier to effectively be capable of amplifying these high frequencies at full power.

In fact, an amplifier should have a slew rate of no less than 6.3V/μs if it is to achieve full output at 20kHz. 

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Slew Rate: >10V/us

Anthem STR

Slew Rate: 30 V/μs

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Voltage Gain

Voltage gain or simply “gain” refers to the amplifier’s ability to amplify a signal. Because audio signal strength is defined by its AC voltage, voltage gain is an appropriate way to measure an amplifier’s ability to amplify an audio signal.

Voltage gain, itself, is the ratio of the output signal voltage to the input signal voltage.

However, audio gain is typically measured in decibels, which is a ratio based on a logarithmic scale.

Gain is often used to describe preamplifiers and is sometimes used to define the amount of amplification available in a power amplifier.

However, power amplifiers are generally designed to accept nominal line level (+4 dBu) and their output is generally measured in watts and is dependent on the input impedance of the connected loudspeaker(s).

So then, we aren’t trying to get a varying signal level up to a certain nominal level (which is the case with preamplifiers). Rather, power amplifiers take a nominal level and must amplify it to a level that is appropriate for the connected loudspeakers.

Gain, therefore, is not an overly critical specification to know about a power amplifier. It’s more important to understand the power amp’s output power and rated load impedance along with the speakers’ input impedance and sensitivity ratings.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Voltage Gain: 33dB

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Damping Factor

Damping factor (DF) is technically the ratio of nominal loudspeaker impedance to the total source impedance that drives the loudspeaker.

When measuring the damping factor of a given amplifier, manufacturers will typically utilize a specific test tone into a load impedance of 8Ω (which is a typical nominal impedance of a loudspeaker).

Higher damping factors tell us that the amplifier will have more control over the speaker’s moving driver.

A higher DF will stop the driver from moving faster once the signal is stopped. Similarly, it will cause the driver to move with less lag once the signal is started.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Damping Factor (8ohms), 10 Hz-400 Hz: > 200

Anthem STR

Damping Factor (20Hz – 1 kHz): 330

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Damping factor (100 Hz @ 4Ω): 100

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Signal-To-Noise Ratio

The signal-to-noise ratio of an amplifier, as the name suggests, compares the amplifier’s signal level to the noise in the signal level.

Noise is, unfortunately, a byproduct of any active electrical component. Amplifiers use active electronics to apply gain to the signal. On top of adding noise to the signal, an amplifier can also amplify some noise in the signal even further.

The SNR of an amplifier is measured at its output signal at a certain output level (either in volts or watts). It is the ratio of the signal level to the noise level at the given output and is measured in decibels.

Higher signal-to-noise ratios are better if clean amplification is what we’re after.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Signal to Noise Ratio (A-weighted): >100dB

Anthem STR

Power Amplifier:

  • SNR (IEC-A, ref. 200 W): 114 dB

AudioSource AD5012

Signal-to-Noise Ratio: 100dB below 50W output into 8 ohms w/20kHz lowpass filter/A-Wgt

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

  • S/N Ratio (A weighted @ 1 V): 105 dB
  • S/N Ratio (ref. 1 W output): 83,5 dBA

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Crosstalk

Crosstalk is defined as the unwanted transfer of signals between communication channels.

Crosstalk happens in stereo and other multi-channel amplifiers when some of the signal meant for a particular channels appears (typically by means of electromagnetic induction) on another channel.

For stereo amplifiers, this would mean that some amount of the left channel’s audio signal appears on the right channel output and vice versa.

Crosstalk is measured, in negative decibels at certain output levels and at various individual frequencies.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Crosstalk (below rated power):

  • At 1 kHz: -75 dB
  • At 20 kHz: -59 dB

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Channel Separation

Channel separation and crosstalk are opposite sides of the same coin, so to speak.

Rather than having negative decibel values to show how little crosstalk there is between channels, the channel separation is measured in positive decibels to show how much the signal on one channel is attenuated if it shows up in the other channel.

Like crosstalk, the channel separation spec is measured at a certain power output at specific frequencies and typically into an 8Ω load.

Examples

Anthem STR

Channel Separation: 101 dB (100 Hz), 61 dB (10 kHz)

AudioSource AD5012

Channel Separation: 65dB @ 1kHz, referred to 50W output into 8 ohms

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Inputs

Amplifiers take apply gain to an input signal in order to output a stronger version of the same signal. This, of course, requires both inputs and outputs.

The inputs specification gives us details about the amplifiers inputs. This info may contain:

  • The number of inputs
  • The type of analog inputs and the connection specs
  • The type of digital inputs and the connection specs
  • The connection name(s) (RCA, XLR, etc.)

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Features:

  • RCA and XLR inputs

Anthem STR

Features & Functions:

  • Asynchronous USB Audio Input supports 32-bit / 384 kHz PCM, and DSD 2.8 / 5.6 MHz sources
  • S/PDIF coaxial and optical, and balanced AES/EBU inputs
  • MM and MC phono, balanced XLR, and single-ended analog inputs

AudioSource AD5012

Features:

  • 12 Independent inputs, 2 Bus inputs, 1 optical input

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Signal Input:

  • Front Low level: 1 RCA pair
  • Rear Low level: 1 RCA pair
  • Input Switch: 2CH / 4CH

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Features:

  • ML Power IN with balanced Speaker In inputs for increased noise rejection and RCA In
  • Pre-out full range outputs also available with Speaker In inputs

Inputs / Filters:

  • Inputs: Pre IN / Speaker IN

Sony STR DN1080

Input And Output Terminals:

  • Audio Input Opt (1)
  • Audio Input Coax (1)
  • Analog Audio Input (4)

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Input Sensitivity

The input sensitivity rating of an amplifier refers to the maximum voltage (signal strength) that amp can handle at its input(s) before it begins to output a clipped signal.

Not all audio signals have the same voltage and not all amplifier inputs are designed to accept the same input voltages. For instance, integrated amplifiers may accept mic level signals; most amps accept line level signals, and others even accept speaker level signals at their inputs.

Typically the input sensitivity is measured at the point where the amplifier is outputting its maximum full-rated power into its specified load. This measurement yields are fairly conservative value for input sensitivity.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

  • Input Sensitivity for Full Rated Power at 8 Ohms: 0.775V or 1.4V

AudioSource AD5012

Input Sensitivity: Variable, 430mV for full output with Input Level control at maximum

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Input Sensitivity: 150 mV to 4 V

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

  • Pre-In sensitivity: 0.2 – 5 V RMS
  • Speaker-In sensitivity: 0.8 – 20 V RMS

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Input Impedance

Input impedance refers to the impedance of each of the amplifier’s inputs.

An amplifier input act as the load for the connected audio device.

There are typical ranges for each audio input type. A specific input (whether mic level, line level, balanced, unbalanced) typically has an impedance within the general range of its specific type.

The input impedance specification(s) of an amplifier tell us the load impedance the amplifier’s inputs will present to the connected audio sources.

Remember that different input types will be expected to have different input impedance ratings.

In order to achieve optimal signal/voltage transfer between the amplifier and its connected audio source, the amp’s input impedance (load) should be magnitudes greater (10x or more) than the source impedance.

Note that the same is true for signal transfer between the amp’s output (source) and the connected loudspeaker (load).

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Input Impedance (nominal):

  • Balanced: 20 kΩ
  • Unbalanced: 10 kΩ

Anthem STR

Phone Preamplifier:

  • Input Impedance: 100 Ω (MC), 47 kΩ || 270 pF (MM)

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

  • Pre-In impedance: 15 kΩ
  • Speaker-In impedance: 470 Ω

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Tone Control

The tone control specification is more so common in car amplifiers.

It effectively acts as a simple EQ that we can use to adjust the frequency output of the amplifier.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Tone Controls:

  • Front Channels – Punch EQ
    • Treble: 0dB to +12dB @ 12kHz
    • Bass: 0dB to +18dB @ 45Hz
  • Rear Channels – Punch EQ
    • Treble: 0dB to +12dB @ 12kHz
    • Bass: 0dB to +18dB @ 45Hz

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Crossover Control

Some amplifiers (particularly those designed for car audio) are designed to drive multiple single-driver speaker units rather than full-range multi-driver speakers.

Typical full-range loudspeaker and monitor units have multiple units (woofers, midrange and tweeters) with built-in crossovers to send specific frequency bands to each speaker (lows, mids and highs, respectively).

In car audio, where individual drivers are positioned all around the vehicle, the crossover is typically a standalone unit and/or built into the amplifier that is tasked with driving the speakers.

Some crossovers are adjustable. We can infer, then, that some car amplifiers have adjustable crossovers and should have specifications that tell us the limits of the adjustability.

Crossovers generally work with crossover points/frequencies. Each point have a low-pass and a high-pass filter than effectively splits the audio into two separate bands.

Multiple bands can be created with multiple crossover points.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Crossover Controls

  • Front High-Pass (HP): 50-500Hz 24dB/octave Butterworth
  • Front Low-Pass (LP): 50-500Hz 24dB/octave Butterworth
  • Rear High-Pass (HP): 50-500Hz 24dB/octave Butterworth
  • Rear Low-Pass (LP): 50-500Hz 24dB/octave Butterworth

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Filters

Some amplifiers (specifically those designed to drive subwoofers) will have filters.

These filters are adjustable (or switchable) and the filter specifications are listed in the data sheet.

Examples

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Inputs / Filters:

  • Filters:
    • Lo-pass: 50 – 500 Hz @ 24 dB/Oct.
    • Subsonic: Hi-pass 18 – 40 Hz @ 24 dB/Oct.

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Phase

Audio signals are alternating current. They, therefore, have frequency, amplitude and phase characteristics.

The “phase” of an amplifier is typically discussed in terms of phase shift. This is the amount, if any, by which the output signal is delayed with respect to the input signal. Phase is measured in degrees.

Phase isn’t typically an issue since most times we use a single amplifier to drive a few speakers.

However, in some situations, a phase adjustment may be beneficial for our amplifier.

An example of one of these situations is in larger surround sound setups where the room, speaker placement, and/or listening position are not perfectly in-phase. Adjusting the phase of one or more speakers may calibrate the system to sound perfect.

Another example is with subwoofer amplifiers. The low-frequency sound waves emitted by subwoofers are more sensitive to phase misalignment. Being able to adjust the phase of the subwoofer amplifier can yield a much stronger sense of bass at the listener’s position.

Examples

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Phase: (continuous adjustment) 0 – 180°

Sony STR DN1080

Calibration Features:

  • Automatic Phase Matching

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Remote Controls

Some more sophisticated amplifier, like the televisions in our homes, have remote controls.

We can select different options and make adjustments remotely with a remote control if the amplifier happens to have the technology.

Remote control specifications are often in the features category and tell the use how the remote control interfaces with the amplifier and/or what the remote control is capable of controlling.

Examples

Anthem STR

Features & Functions:

  • Controllable via Ethernet, RS-232, or supplied IR remote

AudioSource AD5012

Features:

  • Multi-function IR remote control

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Remote Controls: Optional Remote Punch EQ (overrides rear channel built-in Punch EQ)

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Features:

  • ART™ (Automatic Remote Turn On-Off)
  • Remote SUB Volume: (-50 – 6) dB

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Visual Indicators

Visual indicators are typically lights that either flash/flicker or light up to indicate occurrences and states of performance of the amplifier.

These indicator could tells us any of the following:

  • Power on
  • Standby
  • Signal
  • Limit
  • Thermal state
  • Protect mode
  • Error

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Features:

  • Two-level controls, power switch and LEDs to indicate signal presence, clip and fault for each channel

AudioSource AD5012

Features:

  • LED status indicator lights

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Visual Indicators:

  • Power
  • Thermal
  • Protect

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Power Wire Gauge

The power wire gauge either refers to the gauge of the included power wire or the manufacturer-recommended power wire gauge.

Remember that smaller gauge wires have greater diameter.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

  • Power Wire Gauge: 4 AWG

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Power Input Connector

The power input connector spec, like the inputs and outputs specifications, tells us the type of connection the amplifier uses to connect to its power source.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

  • Power Input Connector: Block

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Speaker Wire Gauge

Wire gauge is important for sending the relatively high-level speaker level signals from a power amplifier to a loudspeaker. This is because the wires are tasked with carrying more current than, say, an XLR cable carrying mic or line level signals.

The speaker wire gauge specification could tells us the gauge of the included speaker wire (if it’s included). However, the specification is more likely to tell us the suggested gauge of speaker wire to use when connecting the amplifier to a speaker.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

  • Speaker Wire Gauge: 8 AWG to 18 AWG

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Cooling

We’ve previously discussed that heat dissipation can be an issue with amplifiers. Overloading the amplifier can cause it to overheat and malfunction.

Cooling systems provide a way to dissipate the heat and reduce the potential issues while also, in a way, helping to increase the maximum power output by ridding of heat.

An amplifier’s cooling method(s) should be defined in either its features of in a dedicated specification.

Note that heatsink specifications may fall under cooling or have their very own specification.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Features:

  • Efficient forced-air cooling prevents excessive thermal buildup

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

  • Cooling: Convection

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Other Functions

Amplifiers, like a lot of modern technology, do not necessarily only act as amplifiers. There can be plenty of other “bells and whistles” to go with an amplifier that are worth mentioning on a specifications sheet.

Many times these functions are listed in the features section or hidden throughout the other specs. Sometimes, though, these other functions are given their very own specification.

Examples

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Other Functions:

  • Remote In: 4 – 15 VDC – 1 mA
  • ART: Automatic Remote Turn-On/Off with Speaker-In
  • Fuse: 3 x 40 A

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Operating Voltage

The operating voltage specification is typically reserved for car audio amplifiers since they do not plug into power mains. Rather, these amps run on the car’s battery (with the help of the alternator so as to not drain the battery).

The operating voltage of such an amplifier refers to the range of voltages that the unit can be powered by.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Operating Voltage: 9 – 16 VDC

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


The recommended fuse specification is also typically to do with car amplifiers. This spec typically refers to the limit of the manufacturer-recommended fuse/breaker rather than to a specific model.

This fuse’s amperage limit is typically at or just under the maximum current draw the amplifier can handle before getting damaged.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Recommended Fuse (not included)80 A

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Average Current Draw

The average current draw refers to typical current the amplifier will draw from its power source under normal conditions.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Average Current Draw (13.8V Music): 40 A

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Maximum Current Draw

The maximum current draw refers to the limit of current the amplifier can draw from its power source before malfunctioning is likely to occur.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Max. Current Draw (13.8V Sinewave)80 A

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Suggested Alternator

The suggested alternator specification is only for car audio amplifier that run via the car’s alternator.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Suggested Alternator: 75 A

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Power Requirements

Amplifiers are active electronic devices that require power to function. Their power requirements are stated in their specifications sheets.

Normally these power requirements align with the AC power main standards around the world.

In the case of car audio amplifiers, the power requirements are different since these amps rely on the car’s battery to power them properly.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

AC Line Voltage and Frequency – Configuration (+ 10%):

  • 120V~ 60Hz
  • 220V~ 50/60Hz
  • 230-240V~ 50/60Hz

Anthem STR

Power Requirement:

  • 120V version: In countries where the line voltage is 120V, this product operates from a single-phase AC power source that supplies between 108V and 132V at a frequency of 60 Hz.
  • 220V-240V version: In countries where the line voltage is 220V, 230V, or 240V, this product operates from a single-phase AC power source that supplies between 198V and 264V at a frequency of 50 Hz

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

  • Operating Voltage: 9 – 16 VDC
  • Recommended Fuse (not included)80 A
  • Average Current Draw (13.8V Music): 40 A
  • Max. Current Draw (13.8V Sinewave)80 A
  • Suggested Alternator: 75 A

Sony STR DN1080

Power Requirement: 120V 60Hz

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Power Consumption

The power consumption specification, as the name suggests, tells us how much power the amplifier unit will consume from its power source.

Often times this spec will have several scenarios listed and the power consumption for each. These scenarios include but are not limited to:

  • Standby: when the amp is on but “not performing its primary function” or amplifying anything.
  • Idle: when the amp is on and ready to work but no signal is being inputted for amplification.
  • Typical use: when the amp is under normal operating circumstances.
  • Maximum: the maximum amount of power draw the amplifier is capable of.

Examples

Anthem STR

Power Consumption:

  • Standby: 0.38 W (120V), 0.45 W (240V)
  • Standby + Network: 1.1 W (120V), 1.2 W (240V)
  • Idle: 40 W
  • Typical Use: 250 W
  • High Output: 500 W

AudioSource AD5012

AC Power Consumption: 1000W maximum

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Power Supply

Some amplifiers have external power supplies. Their specifications are typically listed when applicable.

Examples

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Power Supply:

  • Power supply voltage: 11-15 VDC
  • Idling current: 2 A
  • Idling current when off: 0.04 mA
  • Consumption @ 1Ω, 14.4 VDC (Max Musical Power): 83.5 A

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Dimensions

The dimensions refer to the width, height and depth of the amplifier unit.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

  • Width: 19 in. (48.3cm)
  • Height: 3.5 in. (8.9cm)
  • Depth: 12.4 in. (31.5cm)

Anthem STR

Dimensions:

  • Height: 6-¾” (17.2 cm)
  • Width: 17” (43.2 cm)
  • Depth (not including power cord): 17-½” (44.5 cm)

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Dimensions (H x W x D):

  • 2.14 x 8.14 x 14.91 (in)
  • 5.42 x 20.68 x 37.86 (cm)

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Max size (mm/inches):

  • 170 x 349 x 46.70
  • 6.69” x 13.74” x 1.84”

Sony STR DN1080

Dimensions (W X H X D IN)

  • 16.92 x 6.14 x 13.03 in
  • (430 x 156 x 331 mm)

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Weight

Weight specifications refer to the weight of the amplifier unit itself and may also include the weight of the included accessories and the overall shipping weight of the product.

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

  • Weight: 29.7lbs (13.5kg)

Anthem STR

Weight (unpacked): 40 lb (18 kg)

AudioSource AD5012

  • Net Weight: 34.5lbs / 15.6kgs
  • Gross Weight: 39.5lbs / 17.9kgs

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

Shipping Weight: 12.00 Lbs. (5.44 Kg.)

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Weight (kg/lb): 3.09 / 6.81

Sony STR DN1080

Weight (Lb): 20 lb 1oz (9.1kg)

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Warranty

A warranty is a written guarantee, issued to the purchaser of an article by its manufacturer, promising to repair or replace it if necessary within a specified period of time.

The warranty specification may let the buyer know a few key details about the warranty offered by the manufacturer:

  • How long the manufacturer’s warranty will apply to one of their newly-purchased amplifiers
  • If the warranty will be voided if the amplifier is bought secondhand
  • What the warranty will cover and will not cover
  • Other limitations of the warranty
  • If there are any necessary steps to obtain the warranty (product registry, for example)

Examples

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Features:

  • One-year, no-fault, fully transferable warranty completely protects your investment

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Compliance

The compliance specification lets the reader know if the amplifier has been approved by any governing body and the certifications that a particular body has given to the unit.

Examples

Rockford-Fosgate-Power-T600-4

CEA-2006 Compliant:

  • CEA-2006 Power Rating
  • 100W x 4 @ 4Ω
  • ≤1.0% THD+N

Back to the full list of power amplifier specifications.


Power Amplifier Examples For This Article

Examples are always good. As discussed, there are plenty of power amplifiers and amplifier types that portray plenty of specifications.

In writing this article, I have gone through many different specifications sheets to find out the specs that power amplifier manufacturers include in their sheets.

The power amplifier examples used in this article are as follow:


Crown Audio XLi 2500

The Crown Audio XLi 2500 (link to compare prices at select retailers) is a popular stereo power amplifier.

Crown Audio XLi 2500

Link to the cut sheet of the Crown Audio XLi 2500.

  • Features:
    • Stereo/parallel/bridge-mono mode
    • User-selectable input sensitivity to power consumer devices: 0.775V and 1.4V
    • RCA and XLR inputs; Speakon® and binding post outputs
    • Two-level controls, power switch and LEDs to indicate signal presence, clip and fault for each channel
    • Protection against shorts, no-load, on/off thumps and radio-frequency interference
    • Efficient forced-air cooling prevents excessive thermal buildup
    • One-year, no-fault, fully transferable warranty completely protects your investment
  • Channels: 2
  • Power:
    • 4Ω Dual: 750W
    • 8Ω Dual: 500W
    • 8Ω Bridged: 1500W
  • Frequency Response (at 1 Watt): 20Hz – 20kHz, +0/-1dB
  • Total Harmonic Distortion (THD): < 0.5%, 20 Hz – 20 kHz
  • Intermodulation Distortion (IMD) (60 Hz and 7 kHz at 4:1 from full rated output to –30 dB): =/ < 0.35%
  • Slew Rate: >10V/us
  • Voltage Gain: 33dB
  • Damping Factor (8ohms), 10 Hz-400 Hz: > 200
  • Signal to Noise Ratio (A-weighted): >100dB
  • Crosstalk (below rated power):
    • At 1 kHz: -75 dB
    • At 20 kHz: -59 dB
  • Input Sensitivity for Full Rated Power at 8 Ohms: 0.775V or 1.4V
  • Input Impedance (nominal):
    • Balanced: 20 kΩ
    • Unbalanced: 10 kΩ
  • AC Line Voltage and Frequency – Configuration (+ 10%):
    • 120V~ 60Hz
    • 220V~ 50/60Hz
    • 230-240V~ 50/60Hz
  • Width: 19 in. (48.3cm)
  • Height: 3.5 in. (8.9cm)
  • Depth: 12.4 in. (31.5cm)
  • Weight: 29.7lbs (13.5kg)

Crown Audio is featured in My New Microphone’s Top 11 Best Power Amplifier Brands In The World.


Anthem STR

The Anthem STR (link to check the price at Crutchfield) is a stereo integrated amplifier with a built-in DAC and Anthem’s proprietary Room Correction technology.

Anthem STR

Link to the Anthem STR datasheet.

Features & Functions:

  • High-resolution preamplifier section
  • High current, high output amplifier section
  • Amplifier uses 8 bipolar output devices per channel, a toroidal transformer power supply, and Advanced Load Monitoring for 200W at 8 ohms, 400W at 4 ohms, 550W at 2 ohms, all continuous
  • Anthem Room Correction™ to optimize in-room response
  • Bass management for two subwoofers, in mono or stereo
  • Up-sampling of lower-resolution sources to 24-bit / 192 kHz
  • Asynchronous USB Audio Input supports 32-bit / 384 kHz PCM, and DSD 2.8 / 5.6 MHz sources
  • S/PDIF coaxial and optical, and balanced AES/EBU inputs
  • MM and MC phono, balanced XLR, and single-ended analog inputs
  • Analog Direct mode
  • Graphic Front Panel Display for easy setup navigation
  • Controllable via Ethernet, RS-232, or supplied IR remote

Phone Preamplifier:

  • Input Impedance: 100 Ω (MC), 47 kΩ || 270 pF (MM)
  • RIAA Response (20 Hz – 20 kHz): ± 0.1 dB
  • Maximum Input (at 1 kHz for <0.1% THD 20 Hz – 20 kHz): 3.6 mV (MC), 37.7 mV (MM)
  • THD+N (at 1 kHz, 20 Hz – 20 kHz BW, 2 Vrms output): 0.008% (MC), 0.005% (MM)
  • SNR (at 1 kHz, IEC-A, 2 Vrms output): 82 dB (MC), 96 dB (MM)
  • Gain (default at 1 kHz, user-adjustable ± 20 dB): 55 dB (MC), 35 dB (MM)

Preamplifier:

  • Frequency Response:
    • digital-in, 192 kHz: 10 Hz – 50 kHz (+0.00, -0.50 dB)
    • digital-in, 96 kHz: 0 Hz – 45 kHz (+0.00, -0.50 dB)
    • digital-in, 44.1 kHz: 10 Hz – 20 kHz (+0.00, -0.03 dB)
    • analog-in, DSP mode: 10 Hz – 40 kHz (+0.02, -0.20 dB)
    • analog-in, direct mode: 10 Hz – 80 kHz (+0.00, -0.10 dB)
  • THD+N (at 1 kHz, 20 Hz – 20 kHz BW, 2 Vrms output):
    • digital-in, 44.1 kHz, 0 dBFS: 0.0008%
    • analog-in, DSP mode, 1 Vrms input: 0.0020%
    • analog-in, direct mode, 1 Vrms input: 0.0020%
  • SNR (at 1 kHz, IEC-A, 2 Vrms output):
    • digital-in, 44.1 kHz, 0 dBFS: 112 dB
    • analog-in, DSP mode, 2 Vrms input: 110 dB
    • analog-in, direct mode, 2 Vrms input: 120 dB
  • Maximum Output (<0.1% THD): 2.2 Vrms except analog-direct 3.3 Vrms
  • XLR Configuration: Pin 1: Ground, Pin 2: Normal, Pin 3: Inverted

Power Amplifier:

  • Output (per channel, continuous, 20 Hz – 20 kHz, <1% THD):
    • 200 W (8Ω)
    • 400 W (4Ω)
    • 550 W (2Ω)
  • THD (100 W):
    • 0.002% (1 kHz)
    • 0.015% (20 kHz)
  • IMD (100 W):
    • ITU-R (19 kHz + 20 kHz): 0.0007%
    • SMPTE (60 Hz + 7 kHz): 0.005%
  • SNR (IEC-A, ref. 200 W): 114 dB
  • Frequency Response (20 Hz – 20 kHz): ± 0.1 dB
  • Power Bandwidth (-3 dB at 200 W into 8 ohms): 80 kHz
  • Slew Rate: 30 V/μs
  • Damping Factor (20Hz – 1 kHz): 330
  • Channel Separation: 101 dB (100 Hz), 61 dB (10 kHz)

Power Requirement:

  • 120V version: In countries where the line voltage is 120V, this product operates from a single-phase AC power source that supplies between 108V and 132V at a frequency of 60 Hz.
  • 220V-240V version: In countries where the line voltage is 220V, 230V, or 240V, this product operates from a single-phase AC power source that supplies between 198V and 264V at a frequency of 50 Hz

Power Consumption:

  • Standby: 0.38 W (120V), 0.45 W (240V)
  • Standby + Network: 1.1 W (120V), 1.2 W (240V)
  • Idle: 40 W
  • Typical Use: 250 W
  • High Output: 500 W

Dimensions:

  • Height: 6-¾” (17.2 cm)
  • Width: 17” (43.2 cm)
  • Depth (not including power cord): 17-½” (44.5 cm)
  • Weight (unpacked): 40 lb (18 kg)

Anthem is featured in My New Microphone’s Top 11 Best Power Amplifier Brands In The World and Top 11 Best AV Receiver Brands In The World.


AudioSource AD5012

The AudioSource AD5012 (link to compare prices at select retailers) is a digital multi-zone power amplifier with 12 independent channel inputs (4 stereo zones), 12 rear-mounted level controls, 2 bus inputs, and 2 bus outputs.

AudioSource AD5012

Link to the AudioSource AD5012 manual.

  • Features:
    • 12 Channels (6 stereo zones)
    • 12 Rear-mounted level controls
    • 12 Independent inputs, 2 Bus inputs, 1 optical input
    • Bus 1 and Bus 2 master level controls
    • Multi-function IR remote control
    • Normal, signal sensing, and trigger power modes
    • Rear-mounted treble and bass controls for bus 1 & 2
    • Phoenix-style speaker connectors
    • LED status indicator lights
    • Bridgeable channel outputs
    • Rack-mountable (rack mount included)
  • Stereo (8 ohm): 12 x 50W per channel, <0.2% THD+N
  • Stereo (4 ohm): 12 x 75W per channel, <0.2% THD+N
  • Bridged Mono (8 ohm): 125W, 1kHz, <0.2% THD+N
  • Frequency Response: 20Hz ~ 20kHz, +/-0dB
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio: 100dB below 50W output into 8 ohms w/20kHz lowpass filter/A-Wgt
  • Channel Separation: 65dB @ 1kHz, referred to 50W output into 8 ohms
  • Input Sensitivity: Variable, 430mV for full output with Input Level control at maximum
  • AC Power Consumption: 1000W maximum
  • Net Weight: 34.5lbs / 15.6kgs
  • Gross Weight: 39.5lbs / 17.9kgs
  • Input: 120/230V~, 60/50Hz, 1000W

Rockford Fosgate Power T600-4

The Rockford Fosgate Power T600-4 (link to compare prices at select retailers) is a power amplifier designed for car audio.

Link to check out the Rockford Fosgate Power T600-4 manual.

  • CEA-2006 Compliant:
    • CEA-2006 Power Rating
    • 100W x 4 @ 4Ω
    • ≤1.0% THD+N
  • Number of Channels: 4
  • Total Power (Sum of Rated Power): 600 Watts RMS
  • Rated Power (RMS Continuous Power):
    • 100 Watts x 4 @ 4-Ohm
    • 150 Watts x 4 @ 2-Ohm
    • 300 Watts x 2 @ 4-Ohm Bridged
    • 2-Ohm x 2 Bridged Stable
  • Dynamic Power (PVC/PowerCube®):
    • Front Channels:
      • 139 Watts x 2 @ 4-Ohms 0° Res
      • 236 Watts x 2 @ 2-Ohms 0° Res
    • Rear Channels:
      • 140 Watts x 2 @ 4-Ohms 0° Res
      • 236 Watts x 2 @ 2-Ohms 0° Res
  • Bridgeable: Yes
  • Frequency Response: 20Hz to 20kHz +/- 1dB
  • Input Sensitivity: 150 mV to 4 V
  • Circuit Topology Class: Class A/B
  • Efficiency (average):
    • 70% @ 4-Ohm
    • 64% @ 2-Ohm
  • Total Harmonic Distortion (THD+Noise):
    • 4-Ohm: <1.0%
    • 2-Ohm: <1.0%
  • Signal Input:
    • Front Low level: 1 RCA pair
    • Rear Low level: 1 RCA pair
    • Input Switch: 2CH / 4CH
  • Signal Output:
    • Low Level: 1 RCA pair
  • Tone Controls:
    • Front Channels – Punch EQ
      • Treble: 0dB to +12dB @ 12kHz
      • Bass: 0dB to +18dB @ 45Hz
    • Rear Channels – Punch EQ
      • Treble: 0dB to +12dB @ 12kHz
      • Bass: 0dB to +18dB @ 45Hz
  • Crossover Controls
    • Front High-Pass (HP): 50-500Hz 24dB/octave Butterworth
    • Front Low-Pass (LP): 50-500Hz 24dB/octave Butterworth
    • Rear High-Pass (HP): 50-500Hz 24dB/octave Butterworth
    • Rear Low-Pass (LP): 50-500Hz 24dB/octave Butterworth
  • Remote Controls: Optional Remote Punch EQ (overrides rear channel built-in Punch EQ)
  • Visual Indicators:
    • Power
    • Thermal
    • Protect
  • Power Wire Gauge: 4 AWG
  • Power Input Connector: Block
  • Speaker Wire Gauge: 8 AWG to 18 AWG
  • Speaker Output Connector: Screw terminal barrier strip
  • Cooling: Convection
  • Heatsink: N/A
  • Operating Voltage: 9 – 16 VDC
  • Recommended Fuse (not included): 80 A
  • Average Current Draw (13.8V Music): 40 A
  • Max. Current Draw (13.8V Sinewave): 80 A
  • Suggested Alternator: 75 A
  • Dimensions (H x W x D):
    • 2.14 x 8.14 x 14.91 (in)
    • 5.42 x 20.68 x 37.86 (cm)
  • Shipping Weight: 12.00 Lbs. (5.44 Kg.)

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

The Hertz Mille ML Power 1 (link to compare prices at select retailers) is a mono subwoofer amplifier.

Hertz Mille ML Power 1

Link to the Hertz Mille ML Power 1 technical data sheet.

Features:

  • ADC (ADVANCED D-CLASS TECHNOLOGY) ensures hi-end acoustic response with unmatched power efficiency
  • Thermally optimized double extruded heat sink featuring die-cast aluminium ergonomic terminals
  • Stable at 1Ω to drive safely Mille subwoofers
  • Optional HRC BM for subwoofer volume control
  • 24 dB/Oct. continuously adjustable (50 to 500Hz) Lo-Pass filters and
    24dB/Oct. subsonic filter (18 to 40Hz)
  • Variable phase control with 0–180°continuity to optimize low frequencies
  • ML Power IN with balanced Speaker In inputs for increased noise rejection and RCA In
  • Operating status real-time monitoring through 4 LEDs
  • Pre-out full range outputs also available with Speaker In inputs
  • ART™ (Automatic Remote Turn On-Off)

Power Supply:

  • Power supply voltage: 11-15 VDC
  • Idling current: 2 A
  • Idling current when off: 0.04 mA
  • Consumption @ 1Ω, 14.4 VDC (Max Musical Power): 83.5 A

Amplifier Stage:

  • Distorsion – THD (100 Hz @ 4Ω): 0.08 %
  • Bandwidth (-3 dB): 18 – 500 Hz
  • S/N Ratio (A weighted @ 1 V): 105 dB
  • Damping factor (100 Hz @ 4Ω): 100
  • Pre-In sensitivity: 0.2 – 5 V RMS
  • Pre-In impedance: 15 kΩ
  • Speaker-In sensitivity: 0.8 – 20 V RMS
  • Speaker-In impedance: 470 Ω
  • Load impedance (1 Channel): 4 – 1Ω
  • RMS Power (4 Ω, ≤ 1 % THD+N, 14.4 V): 600 W x 1Ch
  • S/N Ratio (ref. 1 W output): 83,5 dBA
  • Output Power (RMS) @ 14.4 VDC, THD 1% (1 Channel):
    • 600 W x 1 (4Ω)
    • 1000 W x 1 (2Ω)
    • 1000 W x 1 (1Ω)

Inputs / Filters:

  • Inputs: Pre IN / Speaker IN
  • Outputs: Pre OUT
  • Filters:
    • Lo-pass: 50 – 500 Hz @ 24 dB/Oct.
  • Phase: (continuous adjustment) 0 – 180°
    • Subsonic: Hi-pass 18 – 40 Hz @ 24 dB/Oct.
  • Remote SUB Volume: (-50 – 6) dB

Other Functions:

  • Remote In: 4 – 15 VDC – 1 mA
  • ART: Automatic Remote Turn-On/Off with Speaker-In
  • Fuse: 3 x 40 A

Size / Weight:

  • Max size (mm/inches):
    • 170 x 349 x 46.70
    • 6.69” x 13.74” x 1.84”
  • Weight (kg/lb): 3.09 / 6.81

Sony STR-DN1080

The Sony STR-DN1080 (link to compare prices at select retailers) is a 7.2-Channel (Surround Sound) Network A/V Receiver.

Sony STR-DN1080

Link to check out the Sony STR-DN1080 specifications.

Amplifier:

  • Number Of Amp Channels: 7ch
  • Number Of Decodable Channels: 7ch + Phantom 2ch
  • Power Output: 165 W (6 ohms, 1 kHz, 1ch driven THD 0.9%)
  • Sound Field:
    • 2ch Stereo
    • Direct
    • Multi Ch Stereo
    • Dolby® Surround
    • Neural: X
    • Front Surround
    • Audio Enhancer
    • Headphone 2ch

Video Features:

  • HDR (High Dynamic Range): Yes
  • Audio Return Channel: Yes (eARC / ARC)
  • HDMI® Pass Through: Yes
  • 3D Over HDMI: Yes
  • 4K 60P 4:4:4 Support: Yes (except VIDEO1 input)
  • A/V Sync: Yes (Variable)
  • Bravia® SYNC™ (CEC CONTROL): Yes (One-Touch Play, System Audio Control, System Power Off)

Audio Features:

  • Sound Enhancement Technologies:
    • DSD Native Playback
    • DSEE HX
    • Pure Direct
    • Sound Optimizer
    • Center Speaker Lift Up
    • Digital Legato Linear
    • In-Ceiling Speaker Mode

Auto Speaker Calibration:

  • Calibration Features:
    • DCAC EX
    • Speaker Relocation
    • Phantom Surround Back
    • Automatic Phase Matching
    • Calibration Mic (Stereo)

Tuner Features:

  • FM/AM: Yes/No
  • Preset Channel (FM/AM): TTL30 (30/No)

Interface:

  • HDMI Supporting HDCP2.2 In/Out: 6/2
  • Input And Output Terminals:
    • Audio Input Opt (1)
    • Audio Input Coax (1)
    • Analog Audio Input (4)
    • Pre Out Subwoofer (2)
    • Composite Monitor Out (1)
    • Headphone Output (1)
    • USB (1 Front)
    • Ethernet Port (1)
  • Speakers Output Terminals:
    • Front A
    • Center
    • Surround
    • Surround Back
    • Zone2 (Common with Surround Back)
    • Height (Common with Surround Back)
    • Front B (Common with Surround Back)
    • Bi-AMP (Common with Surround Back)

Decoding Format for HDMI:

  • Decoding Format For HDMI:
    • DSD
    • LCPM
    • Dolby Atmos®
    • Dolby® Digital
    • Dolby® Dual Mono
    • DTS: X
    • DTS HD MA
    • DTS HD HR
    • DTS
    • DTS-ES (Matrix6.1/Discrete6.1)
    • DTS 96/24

Decoding Format for USB/Network Client:

  • Hi-Res Format:
    • DSDIFF (DSD): Up to 5.6 MHz 5.1ch
    • DSF: Up to 5.6 MHz 5.1ch
    • WAV (LCPM): Up to 192 kHz/24 bit 7.1ch
    • AIFF (LCPM): Up to 192 kHz/24 bit 5.1ch
    • FLAC: Up to 192 kHz/24 bit 5.1ch
    • ALAC: Up to 192 kHz/24 bit 5.1ch
  • Other Format:
    • [MP3].MP3,
    • [AAC/HE-AAC].m4a
    • .AAC
    • [WMA9 Standard].WMA

Network Connectivity:

  • Spotify Connect: Yes
  • Network Features:
    • Bluetooth® Receiver
    • Bluetooth® Transmitter
    • NFC
    • Wi-Fi®
    • AirPlay
    • Mobile Control Application
    • Wireless Multi-Room
  • Chromecast Built-In: Yes
  • Works With Google Assistant: Yes

Custom Install & Control Features:

  • Zone2 Audio: Speaker (Variable) / Line (Variable, Fixed)
  • HDMI Zone: Yes
  • IR Repeat (In/Out): Yes (1/1)

General Features:

  • Auto Standby: Yes
  • GUI (Graphical User Interface): YES (Only through HDMI)
  • Power Requirement: 120V 60Hz

Size & Weight:

  • Dimensions (W X H X D IN)
    • 16.92 x 6.14 x 13.03 in
    • (430 x 156 x 331 mm)
  • Weight (Lb): 20 lb 1oz (9.1kg)

Sony is featured in My New Microphone’s Top 11 Best AV Receiver Brands In The World.

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