The bassoon is wonderful double-reed woodwind instrument with a rich and dark tone. It is best known for its prominence in orchestral and chamber ensembles, where it typically plays tenor and bass roles.
When it comes time to record or spot-mic the bassoon, a microphone is surely needed. What microphones lend themselves best to the bassoon? Here are my top 3 recommendations:
Top 3 Bassoon Microphone Recommendations:
- Schoeps MK4/CMC 6: The Schoeps MK4/CMC 6 is a cardioid condenser capsule (MK4) and mic amplifier (CMC 6) combo. This microphone is incredibly accurate and works wonders as a spot mic in orchestral settings as well as in studio environments when recording the bassoon.
- Royer R-121: The Royer R-121 is the flagship microphone by the ribbon mic manufacturers Royer Labs. The warm, natural capture of the R-121 accurately reproduces the dark character of the bassoon. Although it's a bit pricey for the average home studio, the R-121 is worth every penny and sounds incredible on bassoon.
- DPA d:
4011: The DPA d:dicate 4011 is an incredibly precise small diaphragm condenser microphone. The 4011A high-quality preamp model is an industry leading spot-miking microphone while the 4011C compact preamp model is perhaps the best instrument clip-on mic in the world. dicate
Let's discuss these microphones further in this article and talk about why they make for excellent bassoon mics.
“Best” is a dangerous word. There is really no such thing as a “best microphone” for any situation. The microphone(s) listed in my Recommended Microphones And Accessories” page are simply my recommendations. These recommendations are based on my own experience and are mindful of budget. It would be easy to suggest an ELA M 251 or U47 for most scenarios. However, these tube mics are very expensive, putting them out of a hobbyist's price range and making it difficult for professionals to make their money back on the gear.
Another important note is that the microphone or equipment you choose is not the most important part of recording audio. In fact, there are many factors that are arguably more important than the choice of microphone. These include:
- Performer (whether a musician, speaker, or otherwise)
- Microphone technique/placement
- Number of microphones used
- Natural sound of the room
- Content (whether that's the song, discussion, or otherwise)
- Signal chain (including mic cable, preamplifier, console, and/or interface/computer)
With that being said, some microphones and gear suit some instruments better than others, prompting this series of articles under “Recommended Microphones And Accessories.”
What Does A Bassoon Sound Like?
When choosing a microphone for any application, it's to our great advantage to know the characteristics of the sound source. So what does a bassoon sound like?
The bassoon's range is between B♭1-E♭5. The bassoon’s timbre is rich in harmonics and the differences between the registers of the bassoon are very pronounced.
The lower register sounds the fullest and the upper register sounds the thinnest. The middle register (F#2-B♭3) is typically where the bassoon plays, and give a sound rich in harmonics.
Sound emanates from the bell and the tone holes of the bassoon. In general, the higher frequencies are more directional than the lower frequencies, which leave the bassoon in an omnidirectional sense.
A Note On Miking Bassoons
Bassoons typically find themselves in orchestral or chamber ensembles, so we'll discuss miking them in the general context of these ensembles. The techniques translate to studio recording as well.
One technique is spot-miking. To spot-mic a bassoon is to focus in and isolate its sound as much as possible.
Position a directional microphone between half a foot to three feet away from the bassoon and point the mic at the keys in the centre of the instrument (not at the bell). Experiment with the distance and positioning to get the best sound.
Clip-on mics are an alternative strategy for close-miking bassoon. Simply clip a small directional microphone (like the DPA 4011C) to the bell of the bassoon and point at along the tube at the keys. Again, experiment with mic position to find the “sweet spot.”
When miking solo bassoon in studio environments, experiment with greater distance from the instrument. Distant-miking works best to capture the full sound of the bassoon. This technique works best when the room also sounds nice. Positioning a microphone (or a stereo pair of mics) several feet from a bassoon allows the sound of the instrument to fully develop before getting picked up by the microphone(s).
For more information on microphone placement, check out my article Top 23 Tips For Better Microphone Placement.
Frequency Range Of Bassoon
- Overall Range: 58 Hz ~ 9,000 Hz
- Fundamentals range: 58 Hz – 622 Hz (B♭1-E♭5)
- Harmonics range: 116 Hz ~ 9,000 Hz
- Formant range 1: 440 Hz – 500 Hz
- Formant range 2: 1,220 Hz – 1,280 Hz
So we want a microphone that will accurately capture the true sound of the bassoon. Knowing the fundamental frequencies and the harmonics of the bassoon is a great place to start. On top of this, there are a few more criteria to keep in mind when choosing the best bassoon microphone.
What Factors Make An Ideal Bassoon Microphone?
Let’s discuss a short list of the critical specifications that make up a great bassoon microphone:
- Flat/Extended Frequency Response: When recording of reinforcing a bassoon, it's best to capture the sound as accurately as possible with little or no colouration. This is fairly standard for miking orchestra woodwinds. The bassoon has a deep range (down to B♭1 or 58 Hz) and so choosing a microphone with an extended low-end response helps to reproduce the full sound of the instrument. Since the bassoon doesn't have a great amount of harmonic content above 9 kHz, having an extended high-end response is a subjective choice.
- Directionality: Choose a microphone to best suit your miking techniques and performance situations.
- Sensitivity: Although the bassoon sounds dark, it is still quite expressive. Choose a microphone capable of accurately reproducing the quiet, loud, and nuanced moments of an bassoon performance.
And For Live Applications, A Few More Considerations:
- Price: Pick a microphone you can afford. This is important for performers and crucial for venue owners and audio technicians who plan to make money from their microphone investments.
- Directional Polar Pattern: Select a cardioid-type directional microphone to work well with fold-back monitors and to isolate the bassoon on noisy stages.
- Size: Though not a major factor, size does play a role in microphone placement live.
- Mounting: Is it best to position the mics on stands or clip them to the bassoon? There are pros and cons to both.
So we have a general idea of what we’re looking for. Let’s discuss the recommended bassoon microphones through this lens.
The Schoeps MK4/CMC 6
The MK4/CMC 6 is a capsule/microphone amplifier combination with the MK4 being the cardioid small diaphragm condenser capsule and the CMC 6 being the mic signal amplifier. This microphone is an excellent choice for spot miking bassoon live or recording the instrument in a studio setting. The Schoeps MK4/CMC 6 get the top recommendation on many woodwind instruments, including the bassoon.
Frequency Response Of The Schoeps MK4/CMC 6
The frequency response of the Schoeps MK4/CMC 6 is rated from 40 Hz – 26,000 Hz. This range goes above the range of human hearing (20 Hz – 20,000 Hz). The frequency response graph is as follows:
This beautifully flat response picks up the full range of the bassoon with pristine accuracy. An accurate capture with no added “colour” from a microphone is ideal when recording orchestral instruments like the bassoon.
The slight roll-off of the MK4/CMC 6 toward the lowest fundamental of the bassoon (58 Hz) should not negatively affect the sound of the instrument. In fact, this roll-off may be beneficial depending on the distance between the bassoon and the microphone due to the proximity effect inherent in the MK4 cardioid capsule.
For more information on microphone frequency response, check out my article Complete Guide To Microphone Frequency Response (With Mic Examples).
Polar Response Of The Schoeps MK4/CMC 6
As mentioned, the MK4 is a cardioid microphone capsule. Here is its polar response graph:
This microphone has a very consistent cardioid polar pattern and excellent rear rejection. Contrary to many cardioid mics, the MK4 does not “colour” sound coming in from its sides. This yield a much more natural sound than many cardioid microphones on the market.
The MK4 provides superb rejection and, therefore, is a fantastic choice when spot miking the bassoon in an orchestra. It's also great when recording the bassoon in an environment where other instruments are also being played.
For more information on the cardioid microphone polar pattern, check out my article What Is A Cardioid Microphone? (Polar Pattern + Mic Examples).
Sensitivity Of The Schoeps MK4/CMC 6
The sensitivity rating of the Schoeps MK4/CMC 6 is given as -36.5 dB (V/Pa), 15 mV/Pa. This value is within the typical range for condenser microphones and the microphone will output a strong mic signal.
The small diaphragm of the MK4 reacts with pristine accuracy to the variations in sound pressure around it. The sensitivity of the MK4 diaphragm gives the microphone a spot-on transient response and picks up on the subtle nuances of the bassoon performance.
Price Of The Schoeps MK4/CMC 6
As of the writing of this article, the MK4 with CMC 6 amplifier goes for about $1,500 USD. That's quite expensive for a bassoon microphone. However, the value and versatility of this microphone
The MK4/CMC 6 is nearly ideal for spot miking any instrument in an orchestra. Not only the bassoon.
In the studio, the microphone will surely be a go-to for capturing sound sources as accurately as possible.
For even more versatility, consider checking out the Schoeps MK5, which has a switchable option between cardioid and omnidirectional mode.
For more information on the price of microphones, check out my articles How Much Do Microphones Cost? (With Pricing Examples) and Top 20 Most Expensive Microphones On The Market Today.
Size/Mounting Of The Schoeps MK4/CMC 6
The MK4/CMC 6 is a small pencil microphone measuring 138 mm (~5½”) long by 20 mm (~¾”) in diameter. The microphone is easy to mount to a stand and fit in with an orchestra or band as a spot mic. In the studio, the mounting is even easier due to increased flexibility with the potential microphone positions.
For more information on microphone mounting, check out my article How To Attach A Microphone To A Microphone Stand.
The Royer R121
The Royer R121 is a famous ribbon microphone manufactured by Royer Labs. This legendary microphone sounds beautiful on nearly any instrument, and the bassoon is no exception. The R121 has a precise transient response and a warm, natural tone that works wonderfully for capturing the truest sound of a bassoon.
Frequency Response Of The Royer R121
The frequency response of the Royer R121 is given as 30 Hz – 15,000 Hz ± 3 dB. The R121 frequency response graph is as follows:
We see that the response is fairly flat over the range of a bassoon (58 Hz – 622 Hz). The slight boost into the upper midrange helps to accentuate the relatively dark harmonic profile of the bassoon.
The high-end drop off inherent in the Royer R121's frequency response makes it sound warm and rich. This warmth benefits the sound of bassoons well.
The Royer R121's low-end sensitivity excels at capturing the lowest tones of the bassoon's range.
Though these boosts and cuts may seem small (± 3 dB), they play a big role in determining the sound of the R121. These boosts and cuts are part of the R121's charm and part of the reason this microphone sounds so great on bassoons.
Polar Response Of The Royer R121
Like most ribbon microphones, the Royer R121 has a bidirectional polar pattern. This bidirectional pattern is accurately maintained in both horizontal and vertical planes, helping to ensure a consistent tone as the bassoon moves slightly during a performance. Here is the R121 polar response graph:
A bidirectional microphone benefits the sound of a bassoon in the studio environment by capturing the natural sound of the bassoon in front and some room sound from the back.
For more information on the bidirectional microphone polar pattern, check out my article What Is A Bidirectional/Figure-8 Microphone? (With Mic Examples).
Sensitivity Of The Royer R121
The sensitivity rating of the Royer R121 is given as -47 dB (re. 1v/pa). This is low, and so I'd recommend feeding the R121 mic signal to a quality preamp with lots of clean
The 2.5-micron aluminum ribbon diaphragm of the R121 is amazingly accurate and picks up the subtlest variations in the sound of the bassoon.
Price Of The Royer R121
As of the writing of this article, the price of the Royer R121 is about $1300 USD. What you're paying for here is a top-of-the-line ribbon microphone that sounds amazing on just about anything, including the bassoon.
Size/Mounting Of The Royer R121
The Royer R121's is 158mm (6.25″) long and 25mm (1″) in diameter. The R121 is easy to mount to any mic stand and fits neatly in typical bassoon mic positions within orchestras.
The DPA d:dicate 4011
The DPA 4011 is a top-of-the-line instrument microphone in spot-miking and clip-on miking situations. The 4011 is a cardioid condenser microphone capsule that comes with the choice of two attachable preamps: the High-End Preamp (making it a 4011A) or the Compact Preamp (making it a 4011C).
The 4011A works amazing well as a spot-mic in loud environments and as a deadly accurate transducer in the studio. The 4011C has much of the same specs but is better suited to clip directly onto instruments, making it one of the best, most versatile clip-on microphones on the market today.
Frequency Response Of The DPA d:dicate 4011
The frequency response range of the DPA 4011C is given as 20 Hz – 20,000 Hz, which coincides with the entire range of human hearing. Here is the frequency response graph of the DPA 4011A:
The graph shows us the response of sound coming in at various angles. Because the 4011 is a cardioid capsule, there is maximal rejection at 180-degrees. We notice here the lines of 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees are all very much similar to one another, albeit at lower sensitivity. This tells us that the 4011's polar response is consistent.
The flatness of this response graph tells us the DPA 4011A will capture an incredibly accurate sonic picture of a sound source. The 4011C's frequency response is nearly identical.
Polar Response Of The DPA d:dicate 4011
As we've discussed, the 4011 capsule has a cardioid polar pattern. Here is the polar pattern graph of the 4011A:
The consistency of the 4011's polar pattern makes it sound beautifully natural when spot miking instruments. There is a negligible amount of off-axis colouration, which is often the main con of cardioid patterns.
Pointing this microphone properly at a bassoon will yield great results. The amount of isolation attainable is fantastic with spot-miking techniques and even
Note that the polar response of the 4011C is nearly identical to that of the 4011A pictured above.
Sensitivity Of The DPA d:dicate 4011
The sensitivity rating of the d:dicate 4011 is given as 10 mV/Pa; -40 dB re. 1 V/Pa (nominal, ±2 dB at 1 kHz). This rating is true of both the 4011A and 4011C preamps.
Though this may be considered on the low end of the condenser microphone sensitivity spectrum, the 10mV/Pa sensitivity works quite well in loud orchestral or band situations. The microphone will output a strong signal, but won't be overly influenced by all the sound around it. Rather, its pickup will be focused on the instrument it points at.
The reactivity of the 4011 capsule's small condenser diaphragm is top-notch. Transients and nuances in the bassoon's sound will be picked up effectively and accurately by the amazing DPA 4011.
Price Of The DPA d:dicate 4011
With price points of roughly $1,900 USD for the 4011A and $1,800 USD for the 4011C, these DPA microphones are likely out of many bassoonists' budgets. However, if you're looking for the best option for spot-miking or clip-on-miking, these are honestly your best bet.
The versatility and pristine sound quality of these high-end small diaphragm condenser microphones make the investment well worth it, in my opinion. That being said, I'll be holding off on buying one of these for a good while!
Size/Mounting Of The DPA d:dicate 4011
The 4011A high-quality preamp model measures 170 mm (6.7 in) long, 19 mm (0.75 in) in diameter and weighs 158 g (5.6 oz).
4011A's are excellent spot-microphones and are able to fit in many of the practical positions in orchestral or band settings in order to capture the best sound of the bassoon.
The 4011C compact preamp model measures 64 mm (2.5 in) long, 19 mm (0.75 in) in diameter and weighs 58 g (2 oz).
4011C's make for excellent clip-on microphones when used in conjunction with the GSM4000 gooseneck shock mount. Though not all that common on bassoons, clip-on mics may wind up being the best choice for a consistent pickup of woodwinds.
So these are three of the best microphones for capturing the sound of an bassoon. Of course, there are many microphones that sound amazing on the bassoon, but in considering price and setting, these are my top 3 recommended bassoon mics. Let’s recap:
- Schoeps MK4/CMC 6: Top recommended mic for bassoon.
- Royer R121: Recommended ribbon mic on bassoon.
- DPA d:
dicate4011: Recommended for spot-miking or as a clip-on bassoon microphone.
- Coles 4038 (another superb ribbon mic option)
- AKG C 414 (an incredible and versatile large diaphragm option)
- Sennheiser MD441 (perhaps the best moving-coil dynamic mic on bassoon)
- MXL 770 (Recommended bassoon microphone for under $100 USD)
- Shure Beta 98H/C (A less expensive clip-on microphone option)
For all the My New Microphone mic/gear recommendations, please check out my page Recommended Microphones And Accessories.
More Recommended Microphones
Here is a full list of my recommended microphones for instruments and sources other than bassoon with links to check out more in-depth articles on each:
- Acoustic Guitar
- Alto Saxophone
- Baritone Saxophone
- Bass Clarinet
- Bass Guitar Cabinet/Amp
- Bass Saxophone
- Classical Guitar
- Concert Harp
- Double/Upright Bass
- Drum Overheads
- Electric Guitar Cabinet/Amp (Live)
- Electric Guitar Cabinet/Amp (Studio)
- English Horn
- French Horn
- Grand Piano
- Kick Drum
- Live Speaking (Handheld)
- Live Speaking (Podium/Pulpit)
- Live Vocals
- Podcasts (USB)
- Pipe Organ
- Rap/Hip-Hop Vocals (Studio)
- Scream Vocals (Studio)
- Singing (Studio)
- Snare Drum
- Soprano Saxophone
- Tenor Saxophone
- Tom Drums
- Tubular Bells
- Upright Piano